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Toward a Tobacco-Free Society Chapter 11. 2 Use of Tobacco  Why People use Tobacco  Nicotine  Powerful psychoactive drug  Reaches Brain via bloodstream.

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Presentation on theme: "Toward a Tobacco-Free Society Chapter 11. 2 Use of Tobacco  Why People use Tobacco  Nicotine  Powerful psychoactive drug  Reaches Brain via bloodstream."— Presentation transcript:

1 Toward a Tobacco-Free Society Chapter 11

2 2 Use of Tobacco  Why People use Tobacco  Nicotine  Powerful psychoactive drug  Reaches Brain via bloodstream in seconds  Most physically addictive of the psychoactive drugs.

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4 4 Loss of Control  Three out of four smokers want to quit –60%-80% kick the habit at a stop-smoking clinic. –However, 75% start smoking within a year. –Relapse rate similar to alcoholics and heroin addicts.

5 5 Tolerance and Withdrawal  Using tobacco develops tolerance –addiction may occur within a couple of days.  Abstinence from nicotine: –predictable withdrawal symptoms –Occurs within hours of last dose of nicotine –Most symptoms pass in 2-3 days.

6 6 Social and Psychological Factors  Established habits or cues to trigger smoking  Secondary reinforcers.

7 7 Why Start in the First Place?  Decreases in usage in the 1980’s but a steady increase in the 1990’s.  Largest increase was 13- and 14-years old.  College aged increased from 22% in 1993 to 29% in  Children and teenagers make-up 90% of all new smokers in this country.

8 8 Listening to Advertising  Tobacco spends nearly $6 billion per year.  86% of teens prefer the top three most advertised brands.  Joe Camel is more familiar than Mickey Mouse.

9 9 Who Uses Tobacco?  Characteristics which could increase the potential for use. –A parent or sibling uses tobacco –Peers use tobacco –Child comes from blue-collar family –Child comes from low-income home –Single parent. –Performs poorly in school –Child drops out of school –Has positive attitudes towards tobacco

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11 11 Immediate Effects  Acts on the brain like cocaine and heroin  Mild nicotine poisoning  Stimulates the cerebral cortex  Releases epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine  Physiological effects on the body

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13 13 Health Hazards  Unfiltered cigarettes = 5 billion particles per cubic MM  50,000 times more than polluted urban air  Carcinogen  Damages the lining of the respiratory tract  Poisonous substances = arsenic and nicotine  Carbon monoxide times stronger

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16 16 The Long-Term Effects  Cardiovascular Disease  Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)  atherosclerosis  angina pectoris  myocardial infarction  Lung Cancer and other cancers  Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease  emphysema  Other Respiratory Damage

17 17 Additional Health, Cosmetic, and Economic Concerns  Ulcers  Impotence  Reproductive health problems  Dental diseases  Diminished physical senses  Injuries  Cosmetic concerns  Economic costs

18 18 Cumulative Effects  Males:before 15 yrs. old are half as likely to live to 75 versus those who did not smoke  Female smokers spend 17% more sick days in bed than nonsmokers  Smokers spend one-third more time away from work due to illness

19 19 Other Forms of Tobacco  Spit (Smokeless) Tobacco  Cigar and Pipes  Clover cigarettes and Bidis

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21 21 The Effects of Smoking on the Nonsmoker  Environmental Tobacco smoke (ETS)  EPA a classed as a Carcinogen  “known human carcinogen”  Mainstream smoke and Sidestream smoke  Twice the tar and nicotine  Three times the benzo(a)pyrene  Three times the ammonia  85% of smoke in a room is second hand

22 22 ETS Effects  Develop cough, headaches, nasal discomfort, and eye irritation  Allergies will be exacerbated  Causes 3,000 deaths due to lung cancer  Contributes to about 60,000 deaths from heart disease  Contributes to increased Asthma attacks

23 23 Infants, Children, and ETS  More likely to develop  Bronchitis, pneumonia,& respiratory infections  More complications from asthma  Increased can of SIDS  Children inhale three times more pollutants per unit of body weight than adults.

24 24 Smoking and Pregnancy  Estimated 4600 infant deaths in the U.S.  Miscarriage, premature birth, low birth weight, long term impairments in growth and intellectual development  Possible higher risks of getting cancer

25 25 Cost of Tobacco Use to Society  Health care costs exceed $70 billion per year.  Lost productivity from sickness, disability, and premature death makes it closer to $125 Billion per year.

26 26 What Can Be Done?  Local laws  State and Federal laws  FDA  Marketing efforts and restrictions  International Action  Private sector  Individual Action

27 27 Quitting  Since % of all adults who have smoked have quit.  Benefits  Options for Quitting

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