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Alcohol, Tobacco, and other Drugs.  Alcohol has the same chemical and physical effects on everyone who drinks.  Someone who doesn’t act drunk isn’t.

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Presentation on theme: "Alcohol, Tobacco, and other Drugs.  Alcohol has the same chemical and physical effects on everyone who drinks.  Someone who doesn’t act drunk isn’t."— Presentation transcript:

1 Alcohol, Tobacco, and other Drugs

2  Alcohol has the same chemical and physical effects on everyone who drinks.  Someone who doesn’t act drunk isn’t drunk.  When a person in intoxicated, coffee, a cold shower, or fresh air will sober him or her up.  Alcohol impairs judgment and social behaviors. True or False

3  People can get into serious health, legal, and social problems anytime they use alcohol.  Drinking alcohol on weekends or once in a while is not harmful.  No amounts of alcohol is safe for a pregnant woman to drink.  Binge drinking has no long-term effects.

4 Tobacco Use  Nicotine is a substance that causes physiological or psychological dependence.  All tobacco products contain nicotine.  Nicotine is a stimulant.  Stimulant is a drug that increases the action of the central nervous system, the heart, and other organs.  Nicotine raises blood pressure, increases heart rate, and contributes to heart tobacco to satisfy the craving for nicotine.

5 Cigarette Smoke  Not only is tobacco addictive, but the smoke from burning tobacco is toxic.  In 1992 the Environmental Act Protection Agency classified tobacco smoke, or second hand smoke as a GROUP A carcinogen.  A carcinogen is a cancer-causing substance.  Cigarette smoke also contains tar, a thick, sticky, dark filled fluid produced when tobacco burns.  This tar penetrates the smoker’s respiratory system, it destroys cilia which are tiny hair like structures that line the upper airways and protect against infection.  Lungs damaged by smoking are more susceptible to diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, emphysema, and cancer.

6 Effects of Pipes and Cigars  Cigars contain significant more nicotine and produce more tar and carbon monoxide than cigarettes do.  One cigar can contain as much nicotine as a pack of cigarettes.  Pipe and cigars smokers have in creased risk of developing cancers of the lip, mouth, and throat.

7 Harmful Effects of Smokeless Tobacco  Smokeless tobacco is tobacco that is sniffed through the nose, held in the mouth or chewed.  These products are NOT a safe alternative to smoking.  Smokeless tobacco contains the same amount of nicotine in addition to 28 other carcinogens, all of which are absorbed into the blood through the mucous membrane or the digestive tract.  If you dip 8 times in a day its like smoking two packs of cigarettes.  Smoking tobacco is as addictive as smoke tobacco.

8 Tobacco affect the body  Short-Term Effects of Tobacco use.  Changes in brain Chemistry- Because it is very addictive, the user may experience withdrawal symptoms such as headaches, nervousness, and trembling as soon as 30 minutes after his or her last tobacco use  Increases respiration and heart rate- Breathing during PA becomes more difficult, nicotine may cause an irregular heart rate.  Dulled taste buds and reduced appetite.  Bad breath, smelly hair, clothes, and skin.

9 Tobacco affect the body  Long Term Effects of Tobacco use.  Chronic bronchitis- Repeated tobacco use can damage the cilia in the bronchi until they no longer function. Leads to a buildup of tar in the lungs causing chronic coughing and excessive mucus secretion  Emphysema- Disease that destroys the tiny sir sacs in the lungs. The air sacs become less elastic, making it more difficult for the lungs to absorb oxygen.  Lung Cancer-When the cilia in the bronchi are destroyed extra mucus cannot be expelled. Cancerous cells can grow in these conditions.  Coronary heart disease and stroke- Nicotine constricts blood vessels, which cuts down on circulation, or blood flow. Nicotine also contributes to the plaque buildup in the blood vessels, which can lead to hardened arteries, a condition called Arteriosclerosis.

10 Reduced Tobacco Use Among Teens  Antismoking Campaigns- In 1998 tobacco companies and 46 states reached a legal settlement that restricted tobacco advertising and promotion. Tobacco companies are now required to fund ads that discourage young people from smoking  Financial cost- Tobacco is very expensive.  Societal pressure-Legislative acts have limited smoking in public places.  Family influence- Teen avoid tobacco use because their parents strongly disapprove.

11 Reasons to Give Up Tobacco Use  They begin to have health problems, such as asthma or respiratory infections  They have the desire, will, and commitment to stop.  They realize how expensive the habit is  They realize that using tobacco can lead to other risky behaviors, such as the use of alcohol and other drugs  They find it difficult to purchase tobacco products b/c selling tobacco products to persons under the age of 18 is illegal in all 50 states  They realize the damage effects of secondhand smoke and don’t want to harm their families and friends,

12 Stopping the Addiction  Millions of people have succeeded in their effort to quit tobacco use.  Most people who stop using tobacco will experience symptoms of nicotine withdraw, the process that occurs in the body when nicotine, an additive drug, is no longer used.  Nicotine substitute a product that delivers small amounts of nicotine into the user’s system  Substitutes includes gum (over the counter), patches, nasal strays, and inhalers (doctor perscription.

13 Getting Help  Prepare for the day  Get support and encouragement  Replace tobacco with healthier alternative  Change daily behavior  Engage in healthful behaviors

14 Risks for smokers and nonsmokers  Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) or second hard smoke is air that has been contaminated by tobacco smoke.  Second hand smoke is composed of mainstream smoke and sidestream smoke.  Mainstream smoke-the smoke exhaled from the lungs of a smoker  Sidestream smoke-the smoke from the burning end of a cigarette, pipe, cigar.  Which smoke is worse and why?

15 The Facts about alcohol  Alcohol is ethanol which is the type of alcohol in alcoholic beverages. Ethanol is a powerful and addictive drug.  Ethanol can be produced synthetically or naturally through the fermentation of fruits, vegetables, and grains.  Fermentation is the chemical action of yeast on sugars.  Water flavoring, mineral are mixed with ethanol to produce a variety of beverages such as beer, wine, and liquors.

16 Effects of Alcohol  Alcohol is a depressant- a drug that slows the central nervous system.  Alcohol quickly affects a person’s motor skills by slowing reaction time and impairing vision.  Clear thinking and good judgment also diminish.  Intoxication is the state in which the body is poisoned by alcohol or another substance and the person’s physical and mental control is significantly reduced.

17 Factors that influence Alcohol use  Peer Pressure   Family   Media Messages   Advertising Technique 

18 Alcohol and life Situations  Alcohol and the law  If you are under 21 it is illegal to buy, posse, or consume alcohol  Alcohol, Violence, and Sexual Activity  Teens can protect their health by avoiding situations where alcohol is present. Teens who drink alcohol are more likely to be victims of a violent crime such as rape, aggravated assault or even robbery.  Alcohol Abuse-excessive use of alcohol.

19 Being Alcohol Free  Maintain a healthy body  Make responsible decisions  Avoid risky behaviors  Avoid illegal activities  By refusing alcohol its always better to be prepared for it. When your in the situation of refusal you must be assertive.

20 Short term effects of drinking  Body size and gender- a small person feels the effect of the same amount of alcohol faster than a large person does.  Food- Food in the stomach slows down the passage of alcohol into the bloodstream  Amount and rate of intake- As the amount of alcohol consumed increases the level of alcohol in the bloodstream also rises. When a person drinks alcohol faster then the liver can break it down, intoxication happens.

21 Driving under the influence  Drinking alcohol impairs vision, reaction time, and coordination.  Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) or Driving Under the Influence (DUI) is the leading cause of death among teens.  Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is the amount of alcohol in a person’s blood, expressed as a percentage. NYS BAC is.08.

22 Consequences of DWI  harm to the driver and others  severely restrict driving privileges and/or immediate confiscation of a driver’s license  alcohol related injuries, property damage, and even death  living with regret and remorse from these consequences.  loss of parental trust and respect  arrest, jail time, court appearance, and heavy fine or bail  a police record and possible lawsuits  higher insurance rates- up to three times higher than those for nondrinking peers

23 Alcohol  Binge drinking five or more alcoholic drinks at one sitting, is a serious problem among young people.  Alcohol Poisoning- is a severe and potentially fatal physical reaction to an alcohol overdose.  Effects of Alcohol Poisoning-  mental confusion, stupor, coma, vomiting, and seizure.  slow respiration 10 seconds between breaths or fewer than 8 breaths a minute  irregular heartbeat  hypothermia or low body temperature.  severe dehydration from vomiting

24 Long Term Effect of Alcohol  Changes to the brain  Addiction  Loss of brain function  Brain Damage  Cardiovascular Changes  Heart  Enlarge heart  High blood pressure  Liver Problems  Fatty liver  Alcoholic hepatitis- inflammation of the liver  Digestive System Problems  Irritation  Pancreas Problems

25 Alcohol and Pregnancy  Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)  The baby may be born with a small head and deformities of the face, hands, or feet. Heart, liver, kidneys, defects, as well as vision and hearing problems, are common.  The baby could experience slow growth, and coordination and have difficulties with learning, attention, memory, and problem solving.

26 Alcoholism  Alcoholism is a disease in which a person has a physical or physiological dependence on drinks that contain alcohol.  Alcoholism is characterized by an impaired ability to study, work, or socialize normally.  Alcoholic is a person who is addicted to alcoholic, who is dependent on the alcohol.  displays harmful behavior to themselves or someone one, such a a violent or aggressive behavior  Others may become quiet and withdrawn  cravings  Loss of control  Physical dependence  Tolerance  Health, family, and legal problems

27 Stages of Alcoholism  Stage 1 Abuse  It all begins with social drinking in an attempt to relax.  Stage 2 Dependence  The person reaches a point where he or she cannot stop drinking and is physically dependent on the drug.  Stage 3 Addiction  Final stage drinking is the most important thing in a person’s life.

28 Treatment for Alcohol Abuse  Recovery- Process of learning to live an alcohol free life.  2/3 rds of all alcoholics who try to recover do so with proper treatment.  What kind?   Sobriety- living without alcohol is a lifelong commitment.

29 Substance Abuse  Substance abuse is any unnecessary or improper use of chemical substances for nonmedical purpose.  Illness drugs are chemical substances that people of any age may not lawfully manufacture, possess, buy, or sell.

30 Factors that Influence decisions about drugs  Peer Pressure- is the control and urging of friends or social groups to take a particular action.  Family Member- can help teen resist drugs, Parents  Role Models- are people you admire and want to imitate. Teens who look up to coaches, athletes  Media Messages can influence your impression of drug use. Could be misleading about the harmful effects of drugs.

31 Health Risks of Drug Use  Physical Health- Once a drug enters the bloodstream, it can harm a users brain, heart, lungs, and other vital organs.  Mental Health- People who experiments with drugs often lose sight of their values.  Social Health- Even people who are “just experimenting” with drugs do and say things they later regret.  Overdose is a strong, sometimes fatal reaction to taking a large amount of a drug.

32 The Addiction Cycle  Tolerance- The body of the substance abuser needs more and more of the drug to get the same effect.  Psychological dependence- A condition in which a person believes that a drug is needed in order to feel good or to function normally.  Physiological dependence- A person who experiences the sever effects of withdrawal when he or she stops taking the drug.  Addiction- a physiological or psychological depending on a drug.

33 Other Consequences of Drug  To the individual- effects that person health  Legal- Teens possessing, using, manufacturing or selling drugs use.  For family and Friends- When a person decides to use everyone is involved.  For the Babies and Children- Substances abuse can cause considerable harm to developing fetuses, infants, and children of drug users.  Cost to Society- One of the biggest burdens placed on society is a rise in drug related crime and violent because the use of drugs decreases inhibitions, increases aggressiveness, and clouds judgment.

34 Marijuana  Is the common name for the Indian hemp plant Cannabis, which is a plant whose leaves, buds, and flowers are smoked for their intoxicating effects.  It is one of the most widely used illegal drugs.  Nicknames include weed, grass, or pot.  Hashish or hash is a more stronger from of marijuana.

35 Marijuana and Addiction  Marijuana raises levels of a brain chemical called dopamine  This chemical produces a pleasurable feeling.  The Drug triggers the release of so much dopamine that a feeling of intense well-being.  When the drug wears off however the pleasure sensation strips often dramatically.  This abrupt letdown is called a crash.

36 Marijuana  Paranoia- an irrational suspiciousness or distrust of others.  For teens marijuana poses physical risks to the reproductive organs.  In males, regular use interferes with sperm production and lowers levels of testosterone. Which means voice might not change, body hair will not go.  In woman, the opposite occurs an increase of testosterone such as unwanted facial hair and can lead to infertility.

37 Inhalant  Are substances whose fumes are sniffed and inhaled to achieve a mind-altering effect.  Most inhalants go immediately to the brain, causing damage and actually killing brain cells that will never be replaced.  Includes glues, spray paints, gasoline, nitrates and nitrous oxides.  All inhalants are very dangerous, and are labeled as poisonous  These substances were never designed to be taken into the body and case permanent nervous system and brain damage

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40 Resisting Pressure to Use Drugs  Peer pressure can be intense during the teen years.  “Everyone is doing it,” but the fact is that illegal drugs never become a part of most teens’ lives.  58% of teens of high school students have never tried Marijuana and 90% of students have never tried Cocaine.  So the claim that “Everyone is doing it” is simply not true.  Make a commitment to be drug free  Refusal Skills


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