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PARD Vehicle Interior Air Quality Seminar: Jaguar / Land Rover Perspective Matthew Griffin Technical Specialist Jaguar & Land Rover Materials Engineering.

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Presentation on theme: "PARD Vehicle Interior Air Quality Seminar: Jaguar / Land Rover Perspective Matthew Griffin Technical Specialist Jaguar & Land Rover Materials Engineering."— Presentation transcript:

1 PARD Vehicle Interior Air Quality Seminar: Jaguar / Land Rover Perspective Matthew Griffin Technical Specialist Jaguar & Land Rover Materials Engineering May 2007

2 The New Car Smell > Generally described as “pleasant” and “desirable” > A positive association with the feeling of owning a new vehicle But….. > What causes it? > Is it good for you? PARD Vehicle Interior Air Quality Seminar

3 The chemical emissions from materials are responsible for the desirable “new car smell”, Formaldehyd e Toluene Hydrocarbons Acetaldehyde Esters Ketones Amines PARD Vehicle Interior Air Quality Seminar

4 Some of these substances have been reported to have an adverse affect on the occupant at elevated levels. PARD Vehicle Interior Air Quality Seminar

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6 Concerns raised in mid 1990’s > Lincoln Continental studied – in excess of 50 volatile organic compounds (VOC’s) found inside cabin. In 2001 Study by CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Association), Australia > Looked at anecdotal evidence equivalent to Sick Building Syndrome > Identified several VOC’s that have a potentially adverse effect on human health > Linked VOC emissions to anecdotal evidence PARD Vehicle Interior Air Quality Seminar

7 Media Release - Ref 2001/290 - Dec 19, 2001 New car drivers exposed to toxic emissions New car headaches may involve more than minor warranty problems. Research by CSIRO has found high levels of air toxic emissions in new motor vehicles for up to six months and longer after they leave the showroom. Dr Steve Brown, head of CSIRO's Air Quality Control research says, "Just as air inside our homes and workplaces is often much more polluted than the air outside, so sitting in a new car can expose you to levels of toxic emissions many times beyond goals established by Australia's National Health & Medical Research Council (NHMRC)". During its two-year study using three new motor vehicles from three weeks of their delivery to purchasers, CSIRO became aware of anecdotal reports, such as: A solicitor who was ill for several days (headache, lung irritation, swelling) after collecting a new locally built car and driving it for only 10 minutes (the solicitor eventually swapped it for an 18-month-old car, which did not have any effect on her health) A government worker who felt ill when driving new government cars during the first 6 months after their delivery A chemically sensitised person who felt "spaced out' when in any new car A salesman who regularly updated his locally built car and found he became lethargic on long trips (e.g. from Melbourne to Geelong) when the car was new Dr Brown says, "Measurements made during the CSIRO study found total volatile organic compound (TVOC) concentrations were initially very high (up to 64,000 micrograms per cubic metre) in two Australian-made cars which reached the market 3-10 weeks after manufacture". Controlled exposures of human subjects by other researchers to a 22-compound mixture at concentrations of less than half this have produced effects within minutes, such as subjective reactions (odour, discomfort, drowsiness, fatigue/confusion), eye/nose/throat irritation, headache and (in symptomatic subjects) neuro-behavioural impairment. Brown says, "These levels decreased by approximately 60% in the first month, but still much exceeded the NHMRC indoor air goal of 500 micrograms per cubic metre". The third car was imported, reaching the market four months after manufacture when the concentration of TVOCs was 2000 micrograms per cubic metre. "This is still four times more than the recommended goal and remains a concern," says Dr Brown. Air toxics being emitted inside new cars during the CSIRO study and the effects they may cause include: Benzene - a known human carcinogen for which an annual exposure goal of 16 micrograms per cubic metre has been recommended in the UK Acetone - a mucosal irritant Cyclohexanone - a possible human carcinogen Ethylbenzene - a systemic toxic agent MIBK - a systemic toxic agent n-Hexane - a neurotoxic agent Styrene - a probable human carcinogen Toluene - a central nervous system dysfunction agent Xylene isomers - a foetal development toxic agent

8 Substances of concern identified by CSIRO > Benzene - a known human carcinogen for which an annual exposure goal of 16 micrograms per cubic metre has been recommended in the UK > Acetone - a mucosal irritant > Cyclohexanone - a possible human carcinogen > Ethylbenzene - a systemic toxic agent > MIBK - a systemic toxic agent > n-Hexane - a neurotoxic agent > Styrene - a probable human carcinogen > Toluene - a central nervous system dysfunction agent > Xylene isomers - a foetal development toxic agent PARD Vehicle Interior Air Quality Seminar

9 Japanese Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA) > Reviewed several studies highlighting VOC concentration within automobiles > Concentrations exceed WHO guidelines > Agreed voluntary targets that JAMA members WILL meet for VOC concentrations inside the cabin. > Voluntary agreement came into effect 1 st April, 2007 PARD Vehicle Interior Air Quality Seminar

10 Following on from JAMA’s lead > CHINA has signalled intent to legislate VOC emissions from interior materials Legislation proposed for 2008 > Korea has identified targets for voluntary requirements > Staged introduction, starting in > Requirements differ with respect to temperature (has a large effect on emissions) PARD Vehicle Interior Air Quality Seminar

11 Testing Issues > Different Markets have different testing requirements E.g. Temperature! > Assessment of more than one factor: VOC emissions and Air Con efficiency. > Different / preclusive analytical controls Draft proposals for certain markets impose unimportant controls precluding same equipment / conditions being used from one evaluation to another. Recommend following established ISO methods PARD Vehicle Interior Air Quality Seminar

12 What are JLR doing? > Premium Automotive Research and Development Programme (PARD) Project agreed – May 2005 > Specialist equipment installed September 2005 Gas Chromatograph / Mass Spectrometer Thermal Desorption Unit > Method Development / vehicle analysis – up to Q1, 2006 > Comprehensive analysis (20 vehicles) to JAMA spec: June – September 2006 (vehicles tested within 4 weeks of production) > Component method development and analysis in tandem PARD Vehicle Interior Air Quality Seminar

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14 5 Testing protocol Pre-conditioning Closed mode ( formaldehyde ) Driving mode ( VOC 、 acetaldehyde) Radiator lamp on Cabin temp. C 4.5hr About 5.5hr Cabin B/G 15min 30mi n 15min 30min sampling Air conditioner SW on Open the door for 30min PARD Vehicle Interior Air Quality Seminar JAMA Testing Protocol

15 Car Results L322 interior emissions at 40C PARD Vehicle Interior Air Quality Seminar

16 Test Method Issues Complete Vehicle > JAMA 40°C > China 25°C > TUV 21°C > Korea 25°C > ISO standard (ISO ) work in progress to commonise test requirements PARD Vehicle Interior Air Quality Seminar

17 Test Method Issues Material / Component test > VDA 276 – chamber test (components) - costly > VDA 277 (headspace) – material test > VDA 278 – direct desorbtion – material test > Both VDA 277 and 278 suffer from “internal matrix effects”, elevating results > µ-CTE chamber – emissions contribution from material surface only > Used to assess material / component performance against whole vehicle targets PARD Vehicle Interior Air Quality Seminar

18 Additional Work > Odour: Supplier conducts tests Samples “Pass” - No evidence JLR analysis – samples fail > VOC Analysis: Cause of failure – excessive amine concentration Large Peak on sample trace Library search – methyl pyrrolidinone PARD Vehicle Interior Air Quality Seminar

19 Summary Materials emissions regulations on the increase Requirements needed for components Low emission materials required “Standardisation” of testing parameters required PARD Vehicle Interior Air Quality Seminar


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