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Great Advice from Dr. Bouldin Take as much math, chemistry, and physics as you can stomach.

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Presentation on theme: "Great Advice from Dr. Bouldin Take as much math, chemistry, and physics as you can stomach."— Presentation transcript:

1 Great Advice from Dr. Bouldin Take as much math, chemistry, and physics as you can stomach.

2 Dr. Bouldin, Dr. Fay, and I made an instrument for measuring bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) and carbonate (CO 3 2- ) in waters that could not be titrated.Dr. Bouldin, Dr. Fay, and I made an instrument for measuring bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) and carbonate (CO 3 2- ) in waters that could not be titrated. This experience let me work with a wide variety of instruments in laboratories around the world.This experience let me work with a wide variety of instruments in laboratories around the world.

3 In this example, I’m using a gas chromatograph to direct the excavation of contaminated soil at a Superfund Site.In this example, I’m using a gas chromatograph to direct the excavation of contaminated soil at a Superfund Site.

4 I also helped make the first national-scale map of arsenic-affected drinking water in Bangladesh.I also helped make the first national-scale map of arsenic-affected drinking water in Bangladesh. This map showed that tens of millions of Bangladeshis are at risk of death from skin, bladder, liver, and lung cancers caused by chronic arsenic poisoning.This map showed that tens of millions of Bangladeshis are at risk of death from skin, bladder, liver, and lung cancers caused by chronic arsenic poisoning. Melanosis of the chest Keratosis of the palms (Photograph by Dhaka Community Hospital and Richard Wilson, 2002) Keratosis of the feet Blackfoot disease Map of arsenic concentration (mg/L)

5 More Great Advice from Dr. Bouldin Just because an instrument gives you a number doesn’t mean that it’s right.

6 The performance of our laboratory in Bangladesh. At least 27% of the drinking water wells in Bangladesh apparently contain an analytical interference to the 1,10- phenanthroline methods for measuring ferrous iron and total iron.At least 27% of the drinking water wells in Bangladesh apparently contain an analytical interference to the 1,10- phenanthroline methods for measuring ferrous iron and total iron. This was the first indication that non-arsenic toxins are widely distributed in Bangladesh’s drinking water.This was the first indication that non-arsenic toxins are widely distributed in Bangladesh’s drinking water. AnalyteIndependent Standard Recovery (Analyte Added to Distilled Water) Sample Matrix Spike Recovery (Analyte Added to Drinking Water) Arsenic (As) 83% 89  11% Ferrous iron (Fe 2+ ) 93  10% 34  23% Total iron (Fe) 95% Not measured, at least 27% of samples developed the wrong color.

7 50% of Bangladesh’s area contains groundwater with Mn concentrations greater than the WHO drinking water guideline.50% of Bangladesh’s area contains groundwater with Mn concentrations greater than the WHO drinking water guideline. Manganese in drinking water is a potent neurotoxin, associated with violent behaviors and depression. It causes learning disabilities in children and Parkinson's-like symptoms in adults.Manganese in drinking water is a potent neurotoxin, associated with violent behaviors and depression. It causes learning disabilities in children and Parkinson's-like symptoms in adults. It causes liver and kidney damage, and is associated with hearing loss.It causes liver and kidney damage, and is associated with hearing loss. Map of manganese (Mn) concentration (mg/L).

8 3% of Bangladesh’s area contains groundwater with Pb concentrations greater than the WHO drinking water guideline.3% of Bangladesh’s area contains groundwater with Pb concentrations greater than the WHO drinking water guideline. Lead is a potent neurotoxin, associated with IQ deficits and learning disabilities in children and dementia in adults.Lead is a potent neurotoxin, associated with IQ deficits and learning disabilities in children and dementia in adults. It is also associated with kidney, liver, and heart disease, tooth loss, cataracts, hypertension, diabetes, and bladder cancer.It is also associated with kidney, liver, and heart disease, tooth loss, cataracts, hypertension, diabetes, and bladder cancer. Map of lead (Pb) concentration (mg/L).

9 < 1% of Bangladesh’s area contains groundwater with Ni concentrations greater than the WHO drinking water guideline.< 1% of Bangladesh’s area contains groundwater with Ni concentrations greater than the WHO drinking water guideline. Nickel is a potent carcinogen.Nickel is a potent carcinogen. It is also associated with lung, heart, and kidney disease and can induce spontaneous abortions.It is also associated with lung, heart, and kidney disease and can induce spontaneous abortions. Map of nickel (Ni) concentration (mg/L).

10 < 1% of Bangladesh’s area contains groundwater with Cr concentrations greater than the WHO drinking water guideline.< 1% of Bangladesh’s area contains groundwater with Cr concentrations greater than the WHO drinking water guideline. Cr(III) is the form most often found in drinking water. Chronic exposure inhibits DNA synthesis and the fidelity of DNA replication.Cr(III) is the form most often found in drinking water. Chronic exposure inhibits DNA synthesis and the fidelity of DNA replication. Cr(III) accumulates in the liver; persons with existing liver disease may be exceptionally susceptible to its toxic effects.Cr(III) accumulates in the liver; persons with existing liver disease may be exceptionally susceptible to its toxic effects. Map of total chromium (Cr) concentration (mg/L).

11 a Assuming Bangladesh has 137,000,000 people and 97% of its population drinks well water. Estimated number of Bangladeshis drinking water with metal concentrations above WHO guidelines. Metal Carcinogenic Potential WHO Guideline (µg/L) Percent of Bangladesh’s Area Exceeding WHO Guideline Number of Bangladeshis Drinking Unsafe Water a AsMnPbNiCr Known carcinogen Noncarcinogen Possible carcinogen Probable carcinogen Noncarcinogen < 1 65,000,00066,000,0004,000,000 < 1,300,000 Tens of millions of Bangladeshis are drinking water that exceeds WHO health-based guidelines for As, Mn, Pb, Ni, and Cr.Tens of millions of Bangladeshis are drinking water that exceeds WHO health-based guidelines for As, Mn, Pb, Ni, and Cr. Chronic arsenic poisoning is the most significant health risk.Chronic arsenic poisoning is the most significant health risk. Multimetal health effects are possible.Multimetal health effects are possible.

12 Even More Great Advice from Dr. Bouldin Others paid for your graduate education. Repay the debt. Use science to solve problems.

13 Testing Can Provide Safe Water to Millions Map of average arsenic concentration (mg/L). Map of minimum arsenic concentration (mg/L). 45% of Bangladesh’s neighborhoods contain groundwater with average arsenic concentrations greater than the 50-µg/L national standard.45% of Bangladesh’s neighborhoods contain groundwater with average arsenic concentrations greater than the 50-µg/L national standard. 15% of Bangladesh’s neighborhoods contain groundwater with minimum arsenic concentrations greater than this standard.15% of Bangladesh’s neighborhoods contain groundwater with minimum arsenic concentrations greater than this standard. Therefore, 85% of Bangladesh’s neighborhoods have at least 1 tubewell that does not require treatment for arsenic removal prior to drinking.Therefore, 85% of Bangladesh’s neighborhoods have at least 1 tubewell that does not require treatment for arsenic removal prior to drinking.

14 As a result of this discovery, groundwater testing has become a major component of an overall strategy for providing safe drinking water to the people of Bangladesh.As a result of this discovery, groundwater testing has become a major component of an overall strategy for providing safe drinking water to the people of Bangladesh. Tubewells are considered safe and marked with green paint if the arsenic concentration is less than or equal to the 50-µg/L national standard.Tubewells are considered safe and marked with green paint if the arsenic concentration is less than or equal to the 50-µg/L national standard. Conversely, tubewells are considered unsafe and marked with red paint if the arsenic concentration is greater than 50 µg/L.Conversely, tubewells are considered unsafe and marked with red paint if the arsenic concentration is greater than 50 µg/L. Testing Can Provide Safe Water to Millions (Photograph by The World Bank Group, 2005)

15 Bangladesh has limited access to sophisticated instruments for measuring As and must use a less protective 50-µg/L drinking water standard.Bangladesh has limited access to sophisticated instruments for measuring As and must use a less protective 50-µg/L drinking water standard. Over 120,000 cancer deaths would be prevented if Bangladesh could use the more protective 10-µg/L WHO drinking water guideline.Over 120,000 cancer deaths would be prevented if Bangladesh could use the more protective 10-µg/L WHO drinking water guideline. Our team developed the only method that can accurately, precisely, and safely measure As to less than the 10-µg/L WHO drinking water guideline without expensive or highly specialized equipment.Our team developed the only method that can accurately, precisely, and safely measure As to less than the 10-µg/L WHO drinking water guideline without expensive or highly specialized equipment. Testing Can Provide Safe Water to Millions

16 Thank you Dr. Bouldin!

17 Dr. Bouldin’s Legacy Continues Take as much math, chemistry, and physics as you can stomach.

18 SourcesPrimary: Frisbie, S.H., D.M. Maynard, and B.A. Hoque The nature and extent of arsenic-affected drinking water in Bangladesh. In Metals and Genetics. Ed. by B. Sarkar. Plenum Publishing Company. New York, NY. Pp Frisbie, S.H., D.M. Maynard, and B.A. Hoque The nature and extent of arsenic-affected drinking water in Bangladesh. In Metals and Genetics. Ed. by B. Sarkar. Plenum Publishing Company. New York, NY. Pp Frisbie, S.H., R. Ortega, D.M. Maynard, and B. Sarkar The concentrations of arsenic and other toxic elements in Bangladesh’s drinking water. Environmental Health Perspectives. 110(11): Frisbie, S.H., R. Ortega, D.M. Maynard, and B. Sarkar The concentrations of arsenic and other toxic elements in Bangladesh’s drinking water. Environmental Health Perspectives. 110(11): Frisbie, S.H., E.J. Mitchell, A.Z. Yusuf, M.Y. Siddiq, R.E. Sanchez, R. Ortega, D.M. Maynard, and B. Sarkar The development and use of an innovative laboratory method for measuring arsenic in drinking water from western Bangladesh. Environmental Health Perspectives. 113(9): Frisbie, S.H., E.J. Mitchell, A.Z. Yusuf, M.Y. Siddiq, R.E. Sanchez, R. Ortega, D.M. Maynard, and B. Sarkar The development and use of an innovative laboratory method for measuring arsenic in drinking water from western Bangladesh. Environmental Health Perspectives. 113(9): Secondary: Dhaka Community Hospital, and R. Wilson. Pictures of Sufferers (Chronic Arsenic Poisoning). Available: [cited 7 September 2002].Dhaka Community Hospital, and R. Wilson. Pictures of Sufferers (Chronic Arsenic Poisoning). Available: [cited 7 September 2002]. The World Bank Group, Available: [cited 22 February 2005].The World Bank Group, Available: [cited 22 February 2005].http://wbln1018.worldbank.org


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