Presentation on theme: "Lecture 1 IMPORTANCE AND EXPORT POTENTIAL OF VEGETABLE CROPS."— Presentation transcript:
Lecture 1 IMPORTANCE AND EXPORT POTENTIAL OF VEGETABLE CROPS
Introduction Vegetables play an important role in the balanced diet by providing not only energy but also supplying vital protective nutrients like minerals and vitamins. Vegetable crops give higher yield per unit area as compared to other crops. Vegetables produce 4-5 times more food per unit area when compared to cereals. Most vegetables crops are of short duration and fit well into many remunerative crop rotation and cropping patterns like intercropping, multiple cropping and companion cropping.
According to Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), intake of 300g of vegetables every day to make our diet balanced along with other diets. This includes 125 g leafy vegetables, 75 g other vegetables and 100 g root and tuber vegetables. The recommendation for average women is more or less same with exception in roots and tubers which should be at least 75g per day.
The average intake of vegetables of the country is about 230 g/head/day. Low availability per capita per day is due to high population and heavy post harvest losses (approx 35%). The importance of vegetables is further increased as majority of the Indian population is vegetarian.
Basic Statistic (NHB, 2010) India: 2nd largest producer of vegetables in the world after China Area under vegetables 7.985 million ha Total production 133.73 million tonnes Productivity per ha 16.7 t/ha Top five states (area wise) WB, UP, Bihar, Orrisa, Maharashtra. Highest productivity:Tamilnadu (28.92 t/ha) India’s share in world production: 14%. According to an estimate, by the end of 2030, nearly 151-193 million tones of vegetables are to be produced to meet the requirement.
Area and Production of major vegetables in India (2009-10) CropAREA (000 ha)Production (000 MT) Cabbage 3016357 Cauliflower 3155989 Peas 3493311 Onion 75612167 Potato 186335889
Export Potential of Vegetables India is the fruit and vegetable basket of the world. India has a unique position in production among other countries as variety of vegetables crops. Vegetables are becoming increasingly important as cash crop for urban and export markets. Over 90 % of India's exports in fresh products to west Asia and East European markets. India is the 19 th largest exporter in world for edible vegetables.
Export as per APEDA 2007-08 (Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority) of different vegetable based commodities is as under: Fresh produce: onion, okra, pea, cole crops, cucurbits, bean (Rs1, 525 crores). Vegetable seed: 142 crores. Processed vegetables: Tomato, pea (140 crores). Dehydrated: Ginger, garlic, turmeric, pea.
Major products include fresh Onion, Walnut, fresh Mangoes and other fresh fruits and vegetables. Among vegetables Onion occupies first position in total export value of vegetables. Potatoes and green leafy vegetables like lettuce and celery have good export potential.
1.Fresh Onions: The gulf countries are the main importers of the onion bulbs and Pakistan, China are India's main competitors in the global market. India's export of fresh Onion was Rs 1035.78 crores in 2007-08. Bangladesh, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, UAE, Pakistan and Nepal are the major market of Indian onion.
2.Others fresh vegetables: India's export of other vegetables are Potatoes, Onion, Tomato, Cauliflower, Cabbage, Bean, Egg Plants, Cucumber and Gherkin, Frozen Peas, Garlic and Okra was Rs 489.49 crores (2007-08). The major importing countries of Indian vegetable are UAE, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Bangladesh.
3.Dried and Preserved Vegetables: India is the major producer of dried and preserved vegetables like-: Preserved Onion, Cucumber & Gherkins, provisionally preserved. Mushroom, Green pepper in Brine. Dried Truffles, Asparagus Dried, Dehydrated Garlic powder.
Dehydrated Garlic flakes, Garlic dried, Potatoes Dried, Gram, Grams Dal, Onion prepared/preserved etc. India's export of dried and preserved vegetables was Rs 426.94 Crores in 2007- 2008. The major importers are Russia, France, USA, Germany and Spain.
4. Fruits and vegetable Seeds: The major seeds, which are grown in India are Beet seeds, Pea seeds, Pomegranate seeds, Radish seeds, Tamarind seeds and other seeds. India's total export of fruit & vegetable seeds products was Rs 142.12 crores in 2007-08. The majors importing countries are Pakistan, Bangladesh, USA, Japan & Netherlands.
5.Other processed Fruits & Vegetables: The processed fruit and vegetable industry has tremendous export growth potential. India’s export of other processed fruit and vegetables was Rs. 712.20 crores in 2007- 2008. Major destinations of export are USA, Netherland, UK, UAE and Saudi Arabia.
Temperate / Cool season Vegetables Vegetables differ in their temperature requirements for proper growth and development. In general summer vegetables require a little higher temperature than winter vegetables for optimum growth. Edible portion in winter vegetables is mostly a root, stem, leaf or immature flower parts.
In summer vegetables, the edible portion is mostly botanical fruit. Exceptions are peas and broad beans among winter vegetables and sweet potato and New Zealand Spinach among summer vegetables. According to thermo classification Vegetables are grouped together according to their average monthly temperature requirements which help in separation of cool and warm season crops.
Cool season vegetables grow well when the monthly mean temperature does not exceed 21°C, cool season vegetables thrive best in: i. Average monthly temperature-15-17 °C Cole crops, Root crops, beet, spinach, pea, potato, celery, lettuce and parsley. ii. Average monthly temperature 12-22°C. Onion, garlic, leek, shallot and chicory. These vegetables make optimum growth under cool and moderate temperatures and seed germination also occur at low temperature.
In comparison to warm season vegetable crops, cool season vegetable are shallow rooted (30-60cm) and their plant frame is also smaller. On the basis of hardiness, cool season vegetable crops are of two types. I.Hardy Vegetables i.Semi-hardy vegetables
I.Hardy Vegetables : They can withstand frost injury e.g. Asparagus, broccoli, Brussels’ sprout, cabbage, garlic, Onion, leak, parsley, pea, radish, spinach. ii. Semi-hardy vegetables: Generally there are not injured by light frost e.g. beet, carrot, cauliflower, celery, lettuce, palak, potato, Chinese cabbage, endive, globe artichoke,Turnip etc.
Importance of Cool Season Vegetables in Nutrition and National Economy Cool season vegetables are a major source of dietary fibres, minerals and vitamins. Some of these vegetables also contribute protein, fat and carbohydrate. Most of the leafy vegetables and root crops are rich in minerals. Some of the leafy vegetables are also rich in micro-elements such as copper, manganese and zinc.
Some of the vegetables are rich in vitamin A, vitamin C, Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Pantothenic acid and folic acid. Vitamin A is produced in our body from carotene which is present in higher amounts in leafy vegetables, carrot, turnip green, knol-khol leaves etc. Vitamin B is present in appreciable amount in pea, garlic etc. Vitamin C rich vegetables are cauliflower, cabbage, knol-khol, turnip etc. Among cole crops. Broccoli is best in nutritional quality.
Leafy vegetables are rich in: Carotene (provitamin A), Riboflavin (vitamin B2) and Minerals. It has been estimated that l00 g of leafy vegetables can provide: 60-140mg of ascorbic acid (vitamin c) l00 ug folic acid. 200-400mg of calcium. 4-7 mg iron
Consumption of l00g of leafy vegetables a day can supply 15% or more of the total protein intake. Only 30g of leaves will be sufficient to meet the requirements of vitamin A and C Potato, Parsley and other root vegetables are good sources of starch. Potatoes contain about 1.6 % proteins. Protein present in potatoes are in highly digestible form. Peas and beans are also good source of protein containing 16-25% protein on dry weight basis.
Leafy vegetables and root crops provide the dietary fibre essential for bowel movement and possibility for prevention of diseases such as Appendicitis, coliary cancer, diabetes, diverticulosis, gall stones and obesity. Dietary fibres or non starch polysaccharides are the complex polysaccharide such as cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, gums, pectins and mucins. Dietary fibres possess ability to imbibe water and swell thus contributing bulk to the diet.
Foods containing dietary fibre require chewing hence it limits food intake and acts as natural appetite suppressant. Vegetables also contain a number of flavour compounds such as: Sugar, amino acids, and organic acids, volatiles such as aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, acetals, ketones, alcohol, esters and sulphur compounds. Antioxidants and bioflavonoides and several other compounds present in these crops protect human body from various ailments e.g.
Quercetin, a bioflavonoides present in onion and garlic provide protection against cancer and heart diseases. Compounds like allicin, allistalin, garlicin, diallyl disulphide (garlic) and alkyl disulphide (onion) are sulphur containing compounds which reduces chances of heart attack and strokes. Indoles and isothiocyanates prevent cancers of colon, rectum and breast and are present in cole crops.
Diphenylamine found in onion is effective against diabetes. Leguminous vegetables reduce blood cholesterol thus prevents heart attack. Celery contains 3-n butyl aldehyde, which is effective against hypertension.
Vegetables play an important role in the balanced diet by providing not only energy but also supplying vital protective nutrients like minerals and vitamins. According to recommendation given by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), an average man with vegetarian or non-vegetarian food habit should consume: 125g of green leafy vegetables. l00g of roots and tubers and 75g other vegetables.
The recommendation for average women is more or less same with exception in roots and tubers which should be consumed @ 75g per day. But the availability of vegetables in India is about 150gm per capita/day which is very low compared to the recommended dose. This is due to high population presence and heavy post harvest losses (approx 35%). The importance of vegetable is further increased as most of the Indian population is vegetarian.
India is the world's second largest producer of vegetables next only to China. Vegetable crops in India occupy only 3.8% of the total cultivated land producing 116.03 million tonnes of vegetables annually from an area of 7.49 m ha. India share 12% of world production of vegetables with a productivity of 15.49mt/ha which is quite low as compared to many countries.
By the end of 2030, according to an estimate, we will need 151-193 million tonnes of vegetables to meet our requirement. Therefore it is necessary that production of vegetables including root and tuber crops is increased at a much faster rate.
Vegetable crops give higher yield per unit area as compared to other crops. Vegetables produce 4-5times more food per unit area when compared to cereals. Vegetables play an important role in reducing levels of malnutrition and under nutrition. But presently, yield per unit area of most of the vegetables in India is very low e.g., cabbage. Indian productivity is 21.2mt/ha far less than the world best in Korea Republic i.e. 63mt/ha.
There is lot of scope for increasing yield in most of the vegetables by growing high yielding varieties/hybrids and adopting improved production technology. This will ensure a balanced diet to the common man and a higher income to the farmers. Generate additional farm employment. Cultivation of vegetable crops being more labour intensive than cereal crops will be helpful for seasonally under-employed farm workers in increasing their income.
Most vegetables crops are of short duration and they fit into many remunerative crop rotation and cropping patterns like intercropping, multiple cropping and companion cropping. Vegetable growing enables maximum utilization of land.
Vegetable crops are commercial crops; Supporting market gardening. Truckle gardening or Commercial gardening. Vegetable industry supports many other industries like processing, seed industry, fertilizer, pesticide, weedicides and farm machinery industry.
Vegetables are becoming increasingly important as cash crop for urban and export markets. Hence play an important role in national economy as we can earn foreign exchange by exporting fresh and processed vegetables which reduced trade deficit, besides creating more direct and indirect employment.
Vegetable consumption, therefore to be considered an important economic factor in a society because it improves health as well as working capacity. Vegetables are generally low in energy and dry matter content but immensely important as source of protective nutrients especially vitamins and minerals.
Problems of Vegetable Production Non-availability of quality seeds. Paucity of authentic literature for growers, traders and consumers. Marketing problem. Pest problems. Cultural practices. Irrigation facilities. Consumption pattern: Below poverty line no money to purchase even cereals.
Steps to Success Good equity Marketing Refrigerated transport Pre-cool and cold storage Grading and packing Integrated pest and disease control Production in controlled conditions Right location for right products Quality is the key to success