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Aquila chrysaetos – “Golden Eagle” Golden eagles mate for life Courtship display involving undulating motions, rock diving (males), earth clods (female),

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Presentation on theme: "Aquila chrysaetos – “Golden Eagle” Golden eagles mate for life Courtship display involving undulating motions, rock diving (males), earth clods (female),"— Presentation transcript:

1 Aquila chrysaetos – “Golden Eagle” Golden eagles mate for life Courtship display involving undulating motions, rock diving (males), earth clods (female), etc. Sexual reproduction – 40 to 46 days before egg is laid

2 Aquila chrysaetos – “Golden Eagle” Clutch size = 1 to 4 eggs Clutch size Incubation = 41-45 days – 90% of the time, female is responsible; only leaves to collect her own food source Hatching can take up to 37 hours “Cainism” – the oldest hatchling will kill younger siblingsCainism – Increases individual fitness, aids in the parental workload during a time of food shortage

3  Species of native Minnesota prairie grass, typical of tallgrass prairie  Known for their massive root systems, they grow into a 3-9 ft. tall plant  Reproduces asexually by rhizomes  Underground rhizomes send up stems that eventually develop into new plants  Roots serve three purposes: stability, food storage, and reproduction

4  Starts leaf growth in the spring and develops and matures in late summer to fall  Also reproduces sexually by seeds in the fall  Andromonoecy (bisexual and male flowers occur on the same plant) is the most common form of sex expression in big bluestem, although some true hermaphrodites occur  Haploid gametophyte  Diploid pairing occurs during pollination  Common big bluestem cultivation is at 2n=60  Seeds lie dormant over fall and winter, and germinate in the spring

5 Zinnia Dicot, flowering plants Annuals and perennials Undergo an alternating sporophyte/gametophyte cycle http://calphotos.berkeley.edu

6 Zinnia Polyploidy – Studies of induced polyploidy – Lower chance of survival and shorter in height – White variety produced viable pollen – Orange variety produced no pollen S. Bose and U. C. Panigrahi, 1969 Self incompatibility – Cannot fertilize self Cross species mating comparable to intraspecies mating – Although some prezygotic barriers to fertilization (pollen tube) T. H. Boyle and D. P. Stimart, 1986

7 Cabbage White Butterfly Single-sex organism Sexually reproduce Egg (2-3 days), Larva (2-4 weeks), Pupa (12-14 days), Adult (several days) stages. Females & Males have different wing spotting Males: 1 submarginal black spot; Females: 2 spots Pieris rapae bbagewhite_sml3.jpg tonInformation/insect/B-933/b-933.htm Nora Serres

8 Female lays a single egg on the underside of a leaf Laying eggs singly prevents larvae from possible starvation Males seek out females, mate Male will fly in zigzag pattern until female lands, then grasp her forewings with his legs Fun Research: Serotonin may have something to do with mating behaviors – virgin females will accept males, but when injected with serotonin will reject (like mated females)!

9 1.Plasmogamy- Fusion of two haploid mycelia (monokaryons) to begin dikaryotic phase (two nuclei of two cells cohabit without fusing) 2.Growth of the dikaryotic mycelium, crowding out the parent mycelia 3.Mycelium form compact masses that develop into basidiocarps (mushroom); Basidia (mushroom gills) provide more surface area for the cell and are the site of karyogamy 4.Karyogamy- Fusion of two haploid nuclei to produce a diploid nucleus. 5.Each diploid nucleus undergoes meiosis to produce four haploid nuclei- growing four appendages. 6.Each haploid nuclei produces a bradiospore that are then released in the billions. 7.Mature bradiospore will find a suitable environment to germinate and grow into haploid mycelium. Reproductive Cycle of Basidiomycetes

10 Polyporous squasmosus Polyporous squasmosus is a fungi that belongs to the Basidiomycota family. Most reproduction is sexual through the formation of basidia that produce basidiospores (asexual reproduction is more common in the yeast basidiomycetes) Basidiomycetes have undistinguishable (not readily recognized male or female counterparts) and compatible haploids- mycelia that are composed of filamentous hyphae. The dikaryotic phase of their life cycle can last for years, decades, or centuries. Mating system: Following meiosis, the haploid bradiospores have nuclei that are compatible with 50% (if bipolar) or 25% (if tetrapolar) of their sister bradiospores. However, various genes in the population make compatibility possible between 90% of the monokaryons produced. Clamp connections are structures formed by the growing hyphal cells so that each cell receives differing nuclei, ensuring genetic variation.

11 Cope’s Gray Treefrog Hyla chrysoscelis Lifecycle: diploid, other species of tree frogs that are physically indistinguishable are tetraploid- keeps from interbreeding. eggs— 4-5 days —> tadpoles— 2 months—> froglets Reproduction: reproduces sexually. Mating System: polygynous- males mate with more than one female – Males have a mating call specific to the Cope’s Gray Treefrog – Females are attracted to mating call that is prolonged and occurs most frequently – Females lay eggs once a year in shallow water – Eggs are externally fertilized by males

12 Sexes: there are both males and females. The sex of the frog is determined genetically, however can be determined when environmentally exposed to estrogen. Males and females are identical in appearance except for that males have a darker chin due to the sacs used for calling during mating season Unique Aspects of Reproduction: Breeding in the species is temperature dependent, having the mating season ranges from April- May. Differences in calls between the two tree frog species keeps them from interbreeding Large geographical range: Southern Canada- Northern Florida Sources:,, Herpetology/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=60:copes-gray-treefrog-hyla-chrysoscelis&catid=41:minnesota-frogs-toads-and-treefrogs&Itemid=63, Herpetology/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=60:copes-gray-treefrog-hyla-chrysoscelis&catid=41:minnesota-frogs-toads-and-treefrogs&Itemid=63

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