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Classification of organisms

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Presentation on theme: "Classification of organisms"— Presentation transcript:

1 Classification of organisms

2 Whittaker’s 5 kingdoms Characters Five Kingdoms Monera Protista Fungi
Plantae Animalia Cell type Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Cell wall Non-cellular Present in some Present Absent Body organization Cellular Multicellular Tissue Organ Organ system Mode of nutrition Autotrophic Heterotrophic

3 Prokaryotes | Unicellular
Monera

4 Monera Streptococcus pneumoniae (spherical) Vibrio cholerae (comma) Pseudomonas (rod) Helicobacter pylori (spiral) Bacteria are the sole members of the Kingdom Monera. They are the most abundant micro-organisms. Bacteria occur almost everywhere. They have been found in extreme habitats such as hot springs, deserts, snow and deep oceans where very few other life forms can survive. Bacteria are grouped under four categories based on their shape: spherical - Coccus rod shaped - Bacillus comma shaped - Vibrium spiral shaped - Spirillum

5 Monera Lactic Acid Bacteria
Magnification: 10 cm. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), grown on purpose in cucumbers immersed in a salty brine digest the sugars in the cucumbers and metabolize them into lactic acid. Thus they remove a potential food source for harmful bacteria. At the same time, lactic acid produces an acidic medium which functions as a preservative and controls spoilage bacteria. The high salt concentration used is tolerated by the lactic acid bacteria but prevents spoilage bacteria from propagating. The cucumbers thus treated are called pickles or pickled cucumbers. e.g. Lactobacillus - probiotic bacteria, which are useful for human and animal health

6 Monera Blue-green Algae
Magnification: 3.5 cm. a.k.a Cynanobacteria Greek: κυανός (kyanós) = blue. The ability of cyanobacteria to perform oxygenic photosynthesis is thought to have converted the early reducing atmosphere into an oxidizing one, which dramatically changed the composition of life forms on Earth by stimulating biodiversity. Cyanobacteria can be found in almost every conceivable environment, from oceans to fresh water to bare rock to soil. They are colonial or filamentous. Heterocyst-forming species (Nostoc and Anabena) are specialized for nitrogen fixation and are able to fix nitrogen gas into ammonia, nitrites or nitrates which can be absorbed by plants and converted to protein and nucleic acids Magnification 10 cm.

7 Eukaryotes | Unicellular
Protista

8 Protista Protozoa - Paramecium
Magnification unknown. Paramecium is a group of unicellular ciliate protozoa. They are about 50 to 350 μm in length. Simple cilia cover the body, which allow the cell to move with a synchronous motion (like a caterpillar). Paramecia are widespread in freshwater environments. Paramecia feed on microorganisms like bacteria, algae, and yeasts.

9 Protista Protozoa - Amoeba
Magnification 10 cm. Amoeba are single-celled organisms that feed and move using irregular extensions of the cell cytoplasm known as pseudopods. To move the amoeba extends a pseudopod in the direction it "wishes" to go, anchors it and pulls itself forward by contracting it's cell body. Feeding occurs by phagocytosis. A pseudopodium flows out, engulfs a small organism such as an alga and is then reabsorbed into the cell body, where it is digested by enzymes within a digestive vacuole.

10 Protista Euglena Magnification x2200 @ 10 cm.
This freshwater single-celled organism can either obtain energy from sunlight, via photosynthesis, or by absorbing chemicals from its surroundings. It is also, like many protozoa, an active swimmer, moving rapidly by beating its long, whip-like flagellum.

11 Protista Diatoms Magnification x200 @ 10 cm.
Diatoms are single-celled photosynthetic algae, of which there are about 100,000 species, forming an important part of the plankton at the base of the marine and freshwater food chains. They have mineralized cell walls that contain pure silica coated with a layer of organic material. The cell walls form two thin overlapping shells which fit together like a soap box.

12 Protista Green Algae Magnification x900 @ 10 cm.
Chlamydomonas are single-celled organisms are aquatic, living in freshwater habitats. They use their two, tail like flagella for swimming. These algae are also photosynthetic; they contain two types of the pigment chlorophyll, which they use to capture sunlight energy for the manufacture of sugars.

13 Eukaryotes | Multicellular | With cell wall | Don’t perform photosynthesis
Fungi

14 Fungi Mould - Penicillium
Magnification 10 cm. It produces penicillin, a molecule that is used as an antibiotic, which kills or stops the growth of certain kinds of bacteria inside the body. Moulds grow in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae. Since fungi use decaying organic matter to grow fungi are also called as saphrophytes. Mould bread Penicillium is a common fungus to infect bread, producing mould of this colour.

15 Fungi Mould - Aspergillus
Magnification 10 cm. Aspergillus produces toxins that lead to food contamination. This species may also cause aspergillosis, a hypersensitive lung reaction in asthmatics and those with lowered resistance, provoked by repeated inhalation of the spores. Aspergillus grows in household dust, soil, and decaying vegetable matter, including stale food. Spores about to be released in the air. Mould on nectarines Color of mould depends on the nature of the substrate & on the species of fungus; green for Penicillium, blue, green or yellow for Aspergillus. Network of vegetative filaments called hyphae.

16 Fungi Yeast Magnification x3500 @ 10 cm.
Yeasts are unicellular eukaryotic micro-organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with 1,500 species currently described estimated to be only 1% of all fungal species. Yeast is commonly used in fermenting of alcoholic beverages and baking. They have recently been used to generate electricity in microbial fuel cells, and produce ethanol for the biofuel industry.

17 Fungi Mushroom A mushroom is the fleshy, spore bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source. Like all fungi, mushrooms do not undergo photosynthesis. Many species of mushrooms seemingly appear overnight, growing or expanding rapidly. This phenomenon is the source of several common expressions in the English language including "to mushroom" or "mushrooming" (expanding rapidly in size or scope) and "to pop up like a mushroom" (to appear unexpectedly and quickly).

18 Fungi Lichen Lichens are symbiotic organisms formed of a fungus and an algae that mutually benefit one another. The algae is contained within the hyphae (filaments) of the fungus which protects it from harsh conditions, and in particular from desiccation. The algae supplies the fungus with nutrients that it makes by photosynthesis.

19 Eukaryotes | Multicellular | With cell wall | Perform photosynthesis
Plantae

20 Thallophyta Non-differentiated plant body
Plantae Thallophyta Non-differentiated plant body Embryophyta Differentiated plant body Bryophyta Non-vascular plants Tracheophyta Vascular Plants Petridophyta Do not produce seeds Spermatophyta Seed plants Gymnosperms Naked seeds Angiosperms Seed inside fruits Monocots Dicots

21 Thallophyta thallus = green shoot or twig
Spirogyra are filamentous green algae found in freshwater Cladophora and Sea Lettuce (Ulva lactuca) Volvox (Colonial Algae) Three species of edible seaweed Ulva, Palmaria and Laminaria (devil's apron) Common stonewort (Chara vulgaris) Predominantly aquatic plants | Autotrophic Simple thread like bodies with non-differentiated root, stem and leaves

22 Bryophyta bryon = moss in Latin
Moss Small plants that lack true roots, woody tissue and flowers. Grow in damp places. Moss on walls Funaria Marchantia Liverwort Riccia Bryophyta are amphibians of the plant kingdom They lack vascular tissues | Have root like structures called rhizoids

23 Pteridophyta pteri = fern in Greek
Lycopodium ground pine Marsilea Multicellular | Have vascular tissues Reproduce asexually by spores and sexually by forming gametes

24 Perennial | Evergreen | Woody
Gymnosperms gymno = naked | sperm = seed Pine Cycas Deodar Spruce Perennial | Evergreen | Woody

25 The flowering plants are the most diverse group of land plants.
Angiosperms angio = covered| sperm = seed The flowering plants are the most diverse group of land plants.

26 Eukaryotes | Multicellular | No cell wall | Hetertropic
Animalia

27 Diploblastic and Triploblastic Besides the animals
Animalia Parazoa Porifera Eumetazoa Radiata Coelenterata Bilateria Platyhelminthes No coelom Nematoda Pseudocoelom Coelomate Protostome Mollusca No segmentation Annelida Segmentation Arthropoda Joint legs Deutrostome Echinodermata No notochord Protochordata Rudimentary notochord Vertebrata Have vertebral column Pisces Amphibia Reptilla Aves Mammalia Besides the animals Body symmetry Well after animals coelom = cavity within the body notochord = flexible, rod-shaped supporting structure

28 Porifera porifera = pore bearer in Latin
Spongilla Sycon Non-motile, attached to a solid support Have pores all over the body which helps in circulating water to bring food and oxygen Very minimal differentiation and division in to tissues Ostia = Pores Osculum = Large opening at free end Spicules = Tiny spike like structure that provide support

29 Coelenterata (Cnidaria)
koilos = full bellied Jelly fish Hydra Sea anemone Corals Stay in colonies They have radial symmetry Simple tissue organization Body is made of two layers of cells – diploblastic

30 Platyhelminthes platy = flat in Greek
Planaria Liver fluke Tape worm Tapeworms have no specialized digestive system but feed on the half- digested food in the intestines by direct absorption through their entire skin surface. Tapeworms can cause diarrhoea, weight loss and abdominal discomfort. Non-parasitic flat worm that lives in lakes, streams, ponds, and other freshwater bodies. Liver flukes are parasitic flatworms that live in the bile duct of various mammals. They cause a disease known as fasciolosis and can cause great economic losses in the sheep and cattle industry. They have bilateral symmetry and flat body structure They have three layers of cells – triploblastic No true body cavity (coelom) – acoelomate

31 Nematoda They have bilateral symmetry and round body structure
Ascaris (Roundworm) Hookworm Pinworm / Threadworm These parasites infect mammals, including humans, pigs, dogs and rats. Infection follows the consumption of raw or undercooked meat. The hookworm is a parasitic nematode that lives in the small intestine of its host, which may be a mammal such as a dog, cat, or human. The pinworm also known as threadworm is a common human intestinal parasite, especially in children. They have bilateral symmetry and round body structure They have three layers of cells – triploblastic They have a pseudocoelom Generally parasitic disease causing worms

32 Annelida anellus = little ring in Latin
Leech Earthworm Neresis (Sandworm) Leech is a parasite has two suckers, one at each end of its body, that it uses to attach itself to the skin of its victim whilst it drinks their blood. The earthworms diet mainly consists of organic substances in the soil, and its movement helps to break up the soil and improve its aeration. Sandworms are marine annelid worms that burrow in wet sand and mud using parapodia (un-joint limb-like outgrowths) and setae (bristles) for locomotion. They have bilateral symmetry and segmented body structure Reproduce sexually but sexes are not separate – hermaphrodite They have three layers of cells – triploblastic Have true coelom

33 Arthropoda árthron = joint and podós = foot
Probably the largest group of animals They have bilateral symmetry and are triploblastic Body is externally segmented and protected with chitinous exoskeleton Sexes are separate Coelom is filled with blood

34 Open circulatory system and kidney like organs for excretion
Mollusca molluscus = soft in Greek Snail Octopus Mussels They have bilateral symmetry and soft body that is generally covered with a shell Open circulatory system and kidney like organs for excretion

35 Echinodermata skin like hedgehog in Greek
Starfish Sea urchin Sea cucumber They are free living marine animals They have tough spiny exoskeleton made up of calcium carbonate They show radial symmetry Water vascular system for locomotion, capture and transport of food and respiration

36 Protochordata Urochordata and Cephalochordata
Balanoglossus Marine or burrowing animals with soft, un-segmented, triploblastic body They posses notochord only in embryonic stage

37 Vertebrata Pisces (Fish) Aquatic animals
Exoskeleton of scales | Endoskeleton of bone /cartilage Breathe through gills | Two chambered heart | Cold blooded Amphibia Gills in larvae and lungs in most adults with slimy skin Lay their eggs in water (oviparous) Have three chambered heart Reptilia Exoskeleton of scales Lay eggs outside water (oviparous) Cold blooded mostly terrestrial animals Aves (Bird) Exoskeleton of feathers | Lay eggs outside water (oviparous) Two forelimbs are modified for flight Have four chambered heart | Warm blooded Mammalia Exoskeleton of hair External ears Give birth to live young babies (viviparous except echidna and platypus)


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