4Monera Lactic Acid Bacteria Magnification: 10 cm.Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), grown on purpose in cucumbers immersed in a salty brine digest the sugars in the cucumbers and metabolize them into lactic acid. Thus they remove a potential food source for harmful bacteria. At the same time, lactic acid produces an acidic medium which functions as a preservative and controls spoilage bacteria. The high salt concentration used is tolerated by the lactic acid bacteria but prevents spoilage bacteria from propagating. The cucumbers thus treated are called pickles or pickled cucumbers.e.g. Lactobacillus - probiotic bacteria, which are useful for human and animal health
5Monera Blue-green Algae Magnification: 3.5 cm.a.k.a Nostoc or CynanobacteriaThe name "cyanobacteria" comes from the color of the bacteria (Greek: κυανός (kyanós) = blue).The ability of cyanobacteria to perform oxygenic photosynthesis is thought to have converted the early reducing atmosphere into an oxidizing one, which dramatically changed the composition of life forms on Earth by stimulating biodiversity.Cyanobacteria can be found in almost every conceivable environment, from oceans to fresh water to bare rock to soil.Heterocyst-forming species are specialized for nitrogen fixation and are able to fix nitrogen gas into ammonia, nitrites or nitrates which can be absorbed by plants and converted to protein and nucleic acidsMagnification 10 cm.
7Protista Protozoa - Paramecium Magnification unknown.Paramecium is a group of unicellular ciliate protozoa. They are about 50 to 350 μm in length. Simple cilia cover the body, which allow the cell to move with a synchronous motion (like a caterpillar).Paramecia are widespread in freshwater environments.Paramecia feed on microorganisms like bacteria, algae, and yeasts.
8Protista Protozoa - Amoeba Magnification 10 cm.Amoeba are single-celled organisms (protozoa) that feed and move using irregular extensions of the cell cytoplasm known as pseudopods.To move the amoeba extends a pseudopod in the direction it "wishes" to go, anchors it and pulls itself forward by contracting it's cell body.Feeding occurs by phagocytosis. A pseudopodium flows out, engulfs a small organism such as an alga and is then reabsorbed into the cell body, where it is digested by enzymes within a digestive vacuole.
9Protista Protozoa - Euglena Magnification 10 cm.This freshwater single-celled organism can either obtain energy from sunlight, via photosynthesis, or by absorbing chemicals from its surroundings.It is also, like many protozoa, an active swimmer, moving rapidly by beating its long, whip-like flagellum.
10Protista Green Algae Magnification x900 @ 10 cm. Chlamydomonas are single-celled organisms are aquatic, living in freshwater habitats.They use their two, tail- like flagella for swimming. These algae are also photosynthetic; they contain two types of the pigment chlorophyll, which they use to capture sunlight energy for the manufacture of sugars.
11Protista Diatoms Magnification x200 @ 10 cm. Diatoms are single-celled photosynthetic algae, of which there are about 100,000 species, forming an important part of the plankton at the base of the marine and freshwater food chains.They have mineralized cell walls that contain pure silica coated with a layer of organic material.
13Fungi Mould - Penicillium Magnification 10 cm.It produces penicillin, a molecule that is used as an antibiotic, which kills or stops the growth of certain kinds of bacteria inside the body.Moulds grow in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.Since fungi use decaying organic matter to grow fungi are also called as saphrophytes.Mould breadPenicillium is a common fungus to infect bread, producing mould of this colour.
14Fungi Mould - Aspergillus Magnification 10 cm.Aspergillus produces toxins that lead to food contamination. This species may also cause aspergillosis, a hypersensitive lung reaction in asthmatics and those with lowered resistance, provoked by repeated inhalation of the spores.Aspergillus grows in household dust, soil, and decaying vegetable matter, including stale food.Spores about to be released in the air.Mould on nectarinesColor of mould depends on the nature of the substrate & on the species of fungus; green for Penicillium, blue, green or yellow for Aspergillus.Network of vegetative filaments called hyphae.
15Fungi Yeast Magnification x3500 @ 10 cm. Yeasts are unicellular eukaryotic micro-organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with 1,500 species currently described estimated to be only 1% of all fungal species.Yeast is commonly used in fermenting of alcoholic beverages and baking.have recently been used to generate electricity in microbial fuel cells, and produce ethanol for the biofuel industry.
16Fungi MushroomA mushroom is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source. Like all fungi, mushrooms are not plants and do not undergo photosynthesis.Many species of mushrooms seemingly appear overnight, growing or expanding rapidly. This phenomenon is the source of several common expressions in the English language including "to mushroom" or "mushrooming" (expanding rapidly in size or scope) and "to pop up like a mushroom" (to appear unexpectedly and quickly).
17Fungi LichenLichens are symbiotic organisms formed of a fungus and an alga that mutually benefit one another.The alga is contained within the hyphae (filaments) of the fungus which protects it from harsh conditions, and in particular from desiccation. The alga supplies the fungus with nutrients that it makes by photosynthesis.
19Thallophyta Non-differentiated plant body PlantaeThallophyta Non-differentiated plant bodyEmbryophyta Differentiated plant bodyBryophyta Non-vascular plantsTracheophyta Vascular PlantsPetridophyta Do not produce seedsSpermatophyta Seed plantsGymnosperms Naked seedsAngiosperms Seed inside fruitsMonocotsDicots
20Thallophyta thallus = green shoot or twig Spirogyra are filamentous green algae found in freshwaterCladophora and Sea Lettuce (Ulva lactuca)Common stonewort (Chara vulgaris)Three species of edible seaweed Ulva, Palmaria and Laminaria (devil's apron)Predominantly aquatic plants | Autotrophic Simple thread like bodies with non-differentiated root, stem and leaves
21Bryophyta bryon = moss in Latin Moss Small plants that lack true roots, woody tissue and flowers. Grow in damp places.Moss on wallsFunariaMarchantiaLiverwortRicciaBryophyta are amphibians of the plant kingdomThey lack vascular tissues | Have root like structures called rhizoids
22Pteridophyta pteri = fern in Greek Lycopodium ground pineMarsileaMulticellular | Have vascular tissuesReproduce asexually by spores and sexually by forming gametes
24The flowering plants are the most diverse group of land plants. Angiospermsangio = covered| sperm = seedThe flowering plants are the most diverse group of land plants.
25Eukaryotes | Multicellular | No cell wall | Hetertropic Animalia
26Animalia Besides the animals Body symmetry Well after animals ParazoaPoriferaEumetazoaRadiataCoelenterataBilateriaPlatyhelminthes No coelomNematoda PseudocoelomCoelomateProtostomeMollusca No segmentationAnnelida SegmentationArthropoda Joint legsDeutrostomeEchinodermata No notochordProtochordata Rudimentary notochordVertebrata Have vertebral columnPiscesAmphibiaReptillaAvesMammaliaBesides the animalsBody symmetryWell after animalscoelom = cavity within the bodynotochord = flexible, rod-shaped supporting structure
27Porifera porifera = pore bearer in Latin SpongillaSyconNon-motile, attached to a solid supportHave pores all over the body which helps in circulating water to bring food and oxygen Very minimal differentiation and division in to tissuesOstia = PoresOsculum = Large opening at free endSpicules = Tiny spike like structure
28Coelenterata koilos = full bellied They have radial symmetry Jelly fishHydraSea anemoneCoralsStay in coloniesThey have radial symmetrySimple tissue organizationBody is made of two layers of cells – diploblastic
29Platyhelminthes platy = flat in Greek PlanariaLiveflukeTape wormTapeworms have no specialized digestive system but feed on the half- digested food in the intestines by direct absorption through their entire skin surface. Tapeworms can cause diarrhoea, weight loss and abdominal discomfort.Non-parasitic flat worm that lives in lakes, streams, ponds, and other freshwater bodies.Liver flukes are parasitic flatworms that live in the bile duct of various mammals. They cause a disease known as fasciolosis and can cause great economic losses in the sheep and cattle industry.They have bilateral symmetry and flat body structureThey have three layers of cells – triploblasticNo true body cavity (coelom)
30Nematoda They have bilateral symmetry and round body structure Ascaris (Roundworm)HookwormPinworm / ThreadwormThese parasites infect mammals, including humans, pigs, dogs and rats. Infection follows the consumption of raw or undercooked meat.The hookworm is a parasitic nematode that lives in the small intestine of its host, which may be a mammal such as a dog, cat, or human.The pinworm also known as threadworm is a common human intestinal parasite, especially in children.They have bilateral symmetry and round body structureThey have three layers of cells – triploblasticThey have a pseudocoelomGenerally parasitic disease causing worms
31Annelida anellus = little ring in Latin LeechEarthwormNeresis (Sandworm)Leech is a parasite has two suckers, one at each end of its body, that it uses to attach itself to the skin of its victim whilst it drinks their blood.The earthworms diet mainly consists of organic substances in the soil, and its movement helps to break up the soil and improve its aeration.Sandworms are marine annelid worms that burrow in wet sand and mud using parapodia (un-joint limb-like outgrowths) and setae (bristles) for locomotion.They have bilateral symmetry and segmented body structureReproduce sexually but sexes are not separate – hermaphroditeThey have three layers of cells – triploblasticHave true coelom
32Arthropoda árthron = joint and podós = foot Probably the largest group of animalsThey have bilateral symmetry and are triploblasticBody is externally segmented and protected with chitinous exoskeletonSexes are separateCoelom is filled with blood
33Open circulatory system and kidney like organs for excretion Molluscamolluscus = soft in GreekSnailOctopusMusselsThey have bilateral symmetry and soft body that is generally covered with a shellOpen circulatory system and kidney like organs for excretion
34Echinodermata skin like hedgehog in Greek StarfishSea urchinSea cucumberThey are free living marine animalsThey have tough spiny exoskeleton made up of calcium carbonateThey show radial symmetry
35ProtochordataBalanoglossusMarine or burrowing animals with soft, unsegmented, triploblastic bodyThey posses notochord only in embryonic stage
36Vertebrata Pisces (Fish) Amphibia Reptilia Aves (Bird) Mammalia Aquatic animalsExoskeleton of scales | Endoskeleton of bone /cartilageBreathe through gillsAmphibiaGills in larvae and lungs in most adults with slimy skinLay their eggs in water (oviparous)Have three chambered heartReptiliaExoskeleton of scalesLay eggs outside water (oviparous)Cold blooded mostly terrestrial animalsAves (Bird)Exoskeleton of feathers | Lay eggs outside water (oviparous)Two forelimbs are modified for flightHave four chambered heartMammaliaExoskeleton of hairExternal earsGive birth to live young babies (Mostly viviparous)