Presentation on theme: "informational Reports 1. TO EDUCATE THE READER 2"— Presentation transcript:
1 informational Reports 1. TO EDUCATE THE READER 2 informational Reports 1.TO EDUCATE THE READER 2.Information alone is the focus Analytical Reports 1.To persuade readers to accept some conclusion or recommendation 2.End is either a decision or an action 3.ANALYTICAL REPORTS ARE WRITTEN TO RESPOND TO SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES
2 Examples of informational reports Reports for monitoring and controlling operationsReports on statements of policies and proceduresMost Compliance reportsMost Personal Activity ReportsSome Justification ReportsSome Reports on Client workSome Proposals
3 Reader Comprehension in informational report In Informational Reports main focus isReader Comprehensionnot the Reader Reaction because to simple informational reports readers will normally respond unemotionallySo the information can be presented in direct fashionBut the information should be provided logically and accuratelyto make the reader understandto make the reader use the information in practical way
4 Structuring ideas in a report Topical Organization Can be Based onOrder of ImportanceChronological orderLocationSpatial RelationshipCategories etc.Logical Organization Can be Based onArrangement around the Logic you developed
5 Detailed Examples of Subdividing the Informational reports For monthly Status Reports of an organization the Organizational Structure can serve as dividing frameworkFor Example Mr Milton VP of an agricultural companySummarizes results for his group as a wholeAnd then for each of the six departments under his supervisionFor reports describing working of a MachineEach machine component can correspond to a part of the report
6 Detailed Examples of Subdividing the Informational reports For reports describing an eventThe report can be organized chronologicallyFor reports describing how to do somethingThe report can be organized by steps in procedureFor Some Informational Reports specially the Compliance ReportsThe report can be organized by the instructions supplied by the person who requested the Information
7 Two examples of Informational reports(Periodic Reports ,Personal activity Reports) A monitor/control report that describes what has happened in a department or division during a particular period.These are floated after a regular interval of time.PurposeTo Keep the corporate mangers up-to-dateSo thatA corrective action can be taken if required
8 Format of Periodic reports Usually written in memo formatDo not need much introduction ; subject line on memo is enoughShould follow the sane general format and organization from time to time
9 Sequence of the periodic report most of the time Overview of the routine responsibilities and discussion of special projectsi) Brief discussion of writers routine responsibilitiesii) In some the overview focuses on statistical or financial resultsiii)Otherwise is written in paragraph form.iv)Brief description of any new projects , activities during the said period can also be givenPlan for Coming PeriodSchedule of the activities planned in nest reporting period
10 Sequence of the periodic report most of the time Analysis of the ProblemDiscusses the possible causes and solutions of any problemIf the problem requires high-level attentionThis analysis can be set off as a separate section
11 Important thing to remember in periodic reports Be honest about problems as well as accomplishmentsBad news more important than a good newsBecause an immediate action and corrective measure is required in case of a problem whereas good news often does not.
12 example of A periodic report Prepared by:Liz Rockwell, Director of campus recruiting for the Minneapolis office of an accounting firm . Rockwell has this to say about her report“Campus recruiting is a big deal for our firm because we hire most of our staff right out of college. Between January and April we visit eight or ten campuses and screen about 500 candidates in an effort to hire roughly 20 people. During the recruiting season I prepare a memo twice a month to let my boss know where we stand. The rest of the year I submit my report on monthly basis.”
13 Personal Activity Report An Example of Informational Monitor and Control report that gives a persons description of some activity , event, trip convention or conference etc.PURPOSETo Inform the Management of any important information or event that emerged during the activity.FORMATNormally in Memo FormatRequire more of an introduction because they are non recurring documentsOrganized chronologically or around the topics that reflect audience’s interest
14 EXAMPLE OF A PERSONAL ACTIVITY REPORT A personal Activity Report organized by topic. A Conference Report By Chris Bowers (staff of a large Housing Development Company) Bowers says about the report “My boss sent me to the Manufactured Housing Convention to find out whether we might be able to use factory- built houses to reduce our development costs . Because I knew my boss was mainly interested in learning about various kinds of factory-built housing , I went to the seminars that covered the four main types . When I wrote my conference report , I devoted a section to each one”
15 Analytical reports Subdividing analytical reports by Conclusions or RecommendationsWhen writing the analytical Report for people from your own organizationYou are writing for your most receptive readers L*
16 Organizing Analytical reports Some Drawbacks of Direct approachIf your reader has some reservations against you or your material ,thenStrong statement in the beginning can intensify the resistanceEvery thing may appear to be so simple to your readerReaders can call it Superficial L**Use the Direct ApproachWhen your credibility is highWhen your readers trust you and are ready to accept your Conclusions and recommendations.
17 Example of Subdividing the Analytical report along the conclusion Ellen Miller Works on Planning Staff of forest-products company in ,North CarolinaTaskTo investigate opportunities for getting into mushroom-growing business.
18 Example of Subdividing the Analytical report along the conclusion Miller says this about her analytical report“I have worked for my boss for five years ,and our function in the company is to look for new business . Investment banker had sent us a prospectus on a little company that specializes in growing mushrooms, but we did not want to acquire the company without taking a good hard look at the mushroom industry as whole . I spent about six weeks checking out the industry , and I had to conclude that growing mushroom is a lot like eating hot-fudge sundaes: sounds good but has some serious drawbacks. I didn’t feel that it was my place to say flat out that we shouldn’t invest in the industry , but I did feel justified in warning my boss of the risks.”
19 Example of Subdividing the Analytical report along the conclusion Miller divided the report into two main sections knitted around her dual conclusion“Growing Mushroom is a good business but not for our company.”
20 Example of Subdividing the Analytical report on recommendations Readers want to knowWhat they ought to do L***Rather than what they ought to ConcludeHow to Solve the Problem than just study it
21 Example of Subdividing the Analytical report on recommendations Five Steps for Organizing the Report around recommendations1.Establish the need for action in the introduction, generally by briefly describing the problem or opportunity.2.Introduce the benefit that can be achieved without providing any details3.List the steps (recommendations)required to achieve the benefit , using action verbs for emphasis4.Explain each step more fully giving details on procedures ,costs ,and benefits5.Summarize the recommendations
22 Example of Subdividing the Analytical report on recommendations Raymond Vergando, Director of Manufacturing Engineering at a paper-products company in New Jersey, says about his report(on increasing the company’s production of facial tissues without any heavy investment)“I must have looked at a dozen ways we could increase our output. When I wrote up the results, I thought about discussing all the options I’d evaluated, but then it occurred to me that management wasn’t really interested in the ideas that wouldn’t work . So I just talked about the two things we could do to increase capacity”
23 Subdividing the analytical report by logical argument When the audience is not receptive L****When better results are expected by encouraging the reader to weigh all the facts before you present your conclusions or recommendations.Why you want your audience to concentrate on why your ideas make senseWhen you want your report to show the thinking process that lead to conclusion
24 Three methods of Subdividing the analytical report by logical argument 2+2=4 approachScientific MethodYardstick Approach
25 Subdividing the analytical report by logical argument Approach Choice depends on the nature of FactsReasoning process to reach the conclusionNOT Mutually exclusiveOften you have to pursue several lines of Thought to arrive a solutionIn long report specially you may want differing organizational plans for various sections.
26 2+2=4 ApproachReports developed around a list of reasons that collectively add up to the main point you are trying to prove.The main points in your outline and report are the main reasons behind your conclusion or recommendation.Each reason is supported by the evidence collected during the analysisMost efficient and persuasive way to develop an analytical report for a skeptical reader.
27 Example of 2+2=4 ApproachGray Johanson Executive assistant to the president of a diversified companyTo prepare a memoTo Analyze the performance of the Restaurant DivisionalsoTo recommend what to do out of four options1.Continue the current course2.Sell off the chain3.Remodel the existing facilities4.Build new restaurants
28 Example of 2+2=4 Approach Johansen says “I knew that whatever I recommend would alienate somebody . My difficulties were compounded by the nature of the problem. I could have made a good case for any of the three option. But as an objective ,neutral and unbiased observer, I gradually came to the conclusion of my own : that we should sell some of the restaurants and use the proceeds to offset the cost of remodeling the remaining locations and the cost of adding new outlets. I decided that my strategy would be to build a case for this course of action by gradually presenting the various reasons that had emerged from my analysis of the options”