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informational Reports 1. TO EDUCATE THE READER 2

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1 informational Reports 1. TO EDUCATE THE READER 2
informational Reports 1.TO EDUCATE THE READER 2.Information alone is the focus Analytical Reports 1.To persuade readers to accept some conclusion or recommendation 2.End is either a decision or an action 3.ANALYTICAL REPORTS ARE WRITTEN TO RESPOND TO SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES

2 Examples of informational reports
Reports for monitoring and controlling operations Reports on statements of policies and procedures Most Compliance reports Most Personal Activity Reports Some Justification Reports Some Reports on Client work Some Proposals

3 Reader Comprehension in informational report
In Informational Reports main focus is Reader Comprehension not the Reader Reaction because to simple informational reports readers will normally respond unemotionally So the information can be presented in direct fashion But the information should be provided logically and accurately to make the reader understand to make the reader use the information in practical way

4 Structuring ideas in a report
Topical Organization Can be Based on Order of Importance Chronological order Location Spatial Relationship Categories etc. Logical Organization Can be Based on Arrangement around the Logic you developed

5 Detailed Examples of Subdividing the Informational reports
For monthly Status Reports of an organization the Organizational Structure can serve as dividing framework For Example Mr Milton VP of an agricultural company Summarizes results for his group as a whole And then for each of the six departments under his supervision For reports describing working of a Machine Each machine component can correspond to a part of the report

6 Detailed Examples of Subdividing the Informational reports
For reports describing an event The report can be organized chronologically For reports describing how to do something The report can be organized by steps in procedure For Some Informational Reports specially the Compliance Reports The report can be organized by the instructions supplied by the person who requested the Information

7 Two examples of Informational reports(Periodic Reports ,Personal activity Reports)
A monitor/control report that describes what has happened in a department or division during a particular period. These are floated after a regular interval of time. Purpose To Keep the corporate mangers up-to-date So that A corrective action can be taken if required

8 Format of Periodic reports
Usually written in memo format Do not need much introduction ; subject line on memo is enough Should follow the sane general format and organization from time to time

9 Sequence of the periodic report most of the time
Overview of the routine responsibilities and discussion of special projects i) Brief discussion of writers routine responsibilities ii) In some the overview focuses on statistical or financial results iii)Otherwise is written in paragraph form. iv)Brief description of any new projects , activities during the said period can also be given Plan for Coming Period Schedule of the activities planned in nest reporting period

10 Sequence of the periodic report most of the time
Analysis of the Problem Discusses the possible causes and solutions of any problem If the problem requires high-level attention This analysis can be set off as a separate section

11 Important thing to remember in periodic reports
Be honest about problems as well as accomplishments Bad news more important than a good news Because an immediate action and corrective measure is required in case of a problem whereas good news often does not.

12 example of A periodic report
Prepared by: Liz Rockwell, Director of campus recruiting for the Minneapolis office of an accounting firm . Rockwell has this to say about her report “Campus recruiting is a big deal for our firm because we hire most of our staff right out of college. Between January and April we visit eight or ten campuses and screen about 500 candidates in an effort to hire roughly 20 people. During the recruiting season I prepare a memo twice a month to let my boss know where we stand. The rest of the year I submit my report on monthly basis.”

13 Personal Activity Report
An Example of Informational Monitor and Control report that gives a persons description of some activity , event, trip convention or conference etc. PURPOSE To Inform the Management of any important information or event that emerged during the activity. FORMAT Normally in Memo Format Require more of an introduction because they are non recurring documents Organized chronologically or around the topics that reflect audience’s interest

A personal Activity Report organized by topic. A Conference Report By Chris Bowers (staff of a large Housing Development Company) Bowers says about the report “My boss sent me to the Manufactured Housing Convention to find out whether we might be able to use factory- built houses to reduce our development costs . Because I knew my boss was mainly interested in learning about various kinds of factory-built housing , I went to the seminars that covered the four main types . When I wrote my conference report , I devoted a section to each one”

15 Analytical reports Subdividing analytical reports by
Conclusions or Recommendations When writing the analytical Report for people from your own organization You are writing for your most receptive readers L*

16 Organizing Analytical reports
Some Drawbacks of Direct approach If your reader has some reservations against you or your material , then Strong statement in the beginning can intensify the resistance Every thing may appear to be so simple to your reader Readers can call it Superficial L** Use the Direct Approach When your credibility is high When your readers trust you and are ready to accept your Conclusions and recommendations.

17 Example of Subdividing the Analytical report along the conclusion
Ellen Miller Works on Planning Staff of forest-products company in ,North Carolina Task To investigate opportunities for getting into mushroom-growing business.

18 Example of Subdividing the Analytical report along the conclusion
Miller says this about her analytical report “I have worked for my boss for five years ,and our function in the company is to look for new business . Investment banker had sent us a prospectus on a little company that specializes in growing mushrooms, but we did not want to acquire the company without taking a good hard look at the mushroom industry as whole . I spent about six weeks checking out the industry , and I had to conclude that growing mushroom is a lot like eating hot-fudge sundaes: sounds good but has some serious drawbacks. I didn’t feel that it was my place to say flat out that we shouldn’t invest in the industry , but I did feel justified in warning my boss of the risks.”

19 Example of Subdividing the Analytical report along the conclusion
Miller divided the report into two main sections knitted around her dual conclusion “Growing Mushroom is a good business but not for our company.”

20 Example of Subdividing the Analytical report on recommendations
Readers want to know What they ought to do L*** Rather than what they ought to Conclude How to Solve the Problem than just study it

21 Example of Subdividing the Analytical report on recommendations
Five Steps for Organizing the Report around recommendations 1.Establish the need for action in the introduction, generally by briefly describing the problem or opportunity. 2.Introduce the benefit that can be achieved without providing any details 3.List the steps (recommendations)required to achieve the benefit , using action verbs for emphasis 4.Explain each step more fully giving details on procedures ,costs ,and benefits 5.Summarize the recommendations

22 Example of Subdividing the Analytical report on recommendations
Raymond Vergando, Director of Manufacturing Engineering at a paper-products company in New Jersey, says about his report(on increasing the company’s production of facial tissues without any heavy investment) “I must have looked at a dozen ways we could increase our output. When I wrote up the results, I thought about discussing all the options I’d evaluated, but then it occurred to me that management wasn’t really interested in the ideas that wouldn’t work . So I just talked about the two things we could do to increase capacity”

23 Subdividing the analytical report by logical argument
When the audience is not receptive L**** When better results are expected by encouraging the reader to weigh all the facts before you present your conclusions or recommendations. Why you want your audience to concentrate on why your ideas make sense When you want your report to show the thinking process that lead to conclusion

24 Three methods of Subdividing the analytical report by logical argument
2+2=4 approach Scientific Method Yardstick Approach

25 Subdividing the analytical report by logical argument Approach
Choice depends on the nature of Facts Reasoning process to reach the conclusion NOT Mutually exclusive Often you have to pursue several lines of Thought to arrive a solution In long report specially you may want differing organizational plans for various sections.

26 2+2=4 Approach Reports developed around a list of reasons that collectively add up to the main point you are trying to prove. The main points in your outline and report are the main reasons behind your conclusion or recommendation. Each reason is supported by the evidence collected during the analysis Most efficient and persuasive way to develop an analytical report for a skeptical reader.

27 Example of 2+2=4 Approach Gray Johanson Executive assistant to the president of a diversified company To prepare a memo To Analyze the performance of the Restaurant Division also To recommend what to do out of four options 1.Continue the current course 2.Sell off the chain 3.Remodel the existing facilities 4.Build new restaurants

28 Example of 2+2=4 Approach Johansen says
“I knew that whatever I recommend would alienate somebody . My difficulties were compounded by the nature of the problem. I could have made a good case for any of the three option. But as an objective ,neutral and unbiased observer, I gradually came to the conclusion of my own : that we should sell some of the restaurants and use the proceeds to offset the cost of remodeling the remaining locations and the cost of adding new outlets. I decided that my strategy would be to build a case for this course of action by gradually presenting the various reasons that had emerged from my analysis of the options”

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