35.2a Compression wavesSound – A form of energy produced and transmitted by vibrating matterSound travels in compression (longitudinal) waves
45.2a Compression WavesSound is a compression (longitudinal) wave moving back and forth from its sourceAs sound waves travel, molecules are pressed together in some parts (compression) and in some parts are spread out (rarefaction).Wave – A disturbance moving through a medium (solid, liquid, gas)
55.2b Vibration, Compression, Wavelength, Frequency, Amplitude Frequency – the number of vibrations in a given unit of timeWavelength- the distance between two compressions or rarefactionsPitch – determined by the frequency of a vibrating object. Objects vibrating faster have a higher pitch than objects vibrating slower.Amplitude – the amount of energy in a compression wave related to intensity and volume
65.2c Transmitting SoundSound travels more quickly through solids than through liquids and gases because the molecules of a solid are closer together.Sound travels most slowly through gases, because the molecules are farthest apartIf there is no matter to transmit the sound, there is no sound, as in a vacuum.
75.2d Uses and Applications Some animals make and hear ranges of sound vibrations different from those that humans can make (voice) and hearBats, dogs, and whales can hear and produce sounds at a much higher frequency than humansWhales, dolphins, and bats find objects using echolocation, which is locating an object using reflected sound.
85.2d Uses and Applications Humans use sonar to explore the ocean depths.Sonar is a device that locates underwater objects by sending out high frequency sound waves and recording their echoes.
95.2d Uses and Applications Musical instruments vibrate to produce sound:Brass instruments: vibrating airWoodwinds: vibrating reeds or vibrating airPercussion: vibrating surfacesStrings: vibrating strings
115.3a Transverse Waves Light has properties of waves and particles. Light is energy.Light travels in Transverse waves, in which the particles of the medium move perpendicular to the direction the wave moves.
125.3a Transverse WavesLight travels in waves composed of a wavelength, crest (peak), and trough.
135.3b Visible SpectrumVisible light is a combination of several different wavelengths of light traveling together.These wavelengths are represented by the colors red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violetROYGBIV
145.3b Visible SpectrumLight waves are characterized by their wavelengths and frequency.In the visible spectrum, red has the longest wavelength, and violet has the shortest. Wavelengths get progressively shorter from red to violet.
155.3b Visible Spectrum Light waves travels much faster than sound Unlike sound, light waves travel in straight paths called rays and do not need a medium through which to move.A beam is a group of waves
165.3c Opaque, Transparent, and Translucent Light passes through some objects but is blocked by others.OpaqueTransparentTranslucentOpaque materials completely block light from passing through.Transparent materials allow light to pass through with little or no disturbance. Transparent objects may or may not color the light, but you can see objects clearly through them.Translucent materials allow only part of the light to pass through, while bouncing the rays off in many directions giving only a blurry view.
175.3d,e Reflection and Refraction Light travels in straight paths until it hits an object where it may be:reflected- bounced offrefracted- benttransmitted- passedthrough the object orabsorbed- taken inas heat
185.3d ReflectionIf the surface of the medium contacted by the wave is smooth and polished (like a mirror), each reflected wave will be reflected back at the same angle as the incident wave.On the surface of a smooth pool of water, incident light is reflected in an orderly manner to produce a clear image of the scenery surrounding the pool. Throw a rock into the pool, and the water forms waves, which disrupt the reflection by scattering the reflected light rays in all directions.
195.3e RefractionThe amount of bending of a light wave (refraction) depends on:The density of the materialThe wavelength of the light waveThe angle at which the light wave enters the new medium
205.3e RefractionA prism can be used to refract visible light. When the different wavelengths of light in visible light pass through a prism, they are bent at different angles. The colors of light we see are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.
215.3d,e Reflection and Refraction A rainbow occurs from water droplets that act as both mirrors and prisms. The drops bend rays of sunlight at different angles, causing the colors to spread our. The colors are reflected off the back of the drops into our eyes.
235.4 Matter Matter is anything that has mass and volume Mass is the amount of matter in an objectThe mass of an object does not change
245.4a Phases of Matter Matter can exist as a solid, liquid, or gas Keep their shape and have a fixed size, shape, and volumeParticles are packed tightly together (touching) and vibrate back and forthTake the shape of their container, but have fixed volumeParticles are spread out a little and are able to slide past each otherTake the size, shape, and volume of their containerParticles are very spread out and move very quickly in all directions
255.4b Effect of Temperature particles move fastergastemperature increasesliquidsolidgastemperature decreasesliquidsolidparticles move slower
265.4c Atoms and ElementsAll things, living and dead, are made of matter.All matter, regardless of its size, shape, or color, is made of particles (atoms and molecules) that are too small to be seen by the eye.
275.4c Atoms and Elements Atom The smallest particles of matter Cannot be divided into smaller parts without changing their propertiesElementMore than 100 known elements that make up all matterThe smallest part of an element is an atom
285.4d Molecules and Compounds The smallest whole bit of a substanceMolecules are made of two or more atomsTwo or more elements combined to form a new substanceThe smallest part of a compound is a molecule
295.4e Mixtures Including Solutions A combination of two or more substances that do not lose their identifying characteristics when combinedA mixture in which one substance dissolves in another
305.5 Living Systems – Characteristics of Organisms
315.5a Basic Cell Structures and Functions Living things are made of cells.Cells carry out all life processes.New cells come from existing cells.Cells are too small to be seen with the eye alone. By using a microscope, many parts of a cell can be seen.
325.5a Basic Cell Structures and Functions Plant CellsCell Wall – Provides support and protection to the cell membraneRectangular shapeChloroplasts – Traps energy from the sun to produce food, contains chlorophyll (makes the plant green)Cell Membrane – holds in cytoplasm, lets some materials go throughCytoplasm – The jelly-like substanceNucleus – The control center, holds the DNAVacuole – Stores water
335.5a Basic Cell Structures and Functions Animal CellsVacuole – Storage areaRound ShapeNucleus – The control center, holds the DNACell Membrane – holds in cytoplasm, lets some materials go throughCytoplasm – The jelly-like substance
345.5b Classification Five Kingdoms Organisms that share similar characteristics can be organized into groups in order to help understand similarities and differences.Five KingdomsMoneransProtistsFungiPlantsAnimalsOne-celledNo nucleusSome make food, some don’tExample: bacteriaMost are one-celled, but some are many-celledHave nucleusExample: algaeOne-celled or many-celledDecomposerExamples: mold, mushroomMany-celledMake own foodHas nucleusExamples: trees, rosesVery complexObtain food from othersExamples:Human, fish, bird
355.5b Classification Vascular Nonvascular Plants can be categorized as vascular or nonvascularVascularNonvascularHas special tissues to transport food and waterMost plants are vascularExamples:Trees, flowering plantsDoes not have tissues to transport food and waterExamples: Mosses, liverwort, hornwort
365.5b Classification Vertebrates Invertebrates Have backbones Examples: Animals can be categorized as vertebrates or invertebratesVertebratesInvertebratesHave backbonesExamples:Fish, amphibians, birds, mammals, reptilesDo not have backbonesSponges, jellyfish, worms, insects, crustaceans,
375.5c Survival TraitsOrganisms have many traits that allow them to survive in their environment.These include physical and behavioral characteristics, such as:A thick coat of fur to survive in cold climatesA curved beak to catch preyThick bark to protect against the cold wintersMigration to avoid a cold winterHibernation to survive a cold winterBecoming dormant during dry periodsAND MANY MORE…
395.6a Geological Characteristics Oceans cover about 70% of the surface of EarthFeatures: continental shelf, continental slope, continental riseThese are covered with thick layers of sediments (sand, mud, rocks)
405.6b Physical Characteristics The depth of the ocean varies.Relatively shallowProgressively deepensModerately deepDeepVery deep
415.6b Physical Characteristics Ocean water is a complex mixture of gases (air) and dissolved solids (salts, especially sodium chloride).Marine organisms are dependent on dissolved gases for survival.The salinity of ocean water varies in some places depending on rates of evaporation and amount of runoff from nearby land.
425.6b Physical Characteristics The basic motions of ocean water are the waves, currents, and tides.Ocean currents, including the Gulf Stream, are caused by wind patterns and the differences in water densities (due to salinity and temperature differences).Ocean currents affect the mixing of ocean waters. This can affect plant and animal populations. Currents also affect navigation routes.Tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon
445.6b Physical Characteristics Waters on the continental shelf receive the most sunlight and can support most of the life in the oceans.Trenches receive no sunlight, are very cold, and experience extreme pressure. They support the least life.
455.6c Ecological Characteristics Plankton are tiny free-floating organisms in the water.Life in the oceans is dependent upon energy from the sun, dissolved gasses, currents, and minerals.Plankton flourish in areas where nutrient-rich water upwells from the deep.Phytoplankton form the base of the food web.
465.6c Ecological Characteristics As the depth of ocean water increases, the temperature decreases, the pressure increases, and the amount of light decreases. These factors influence the type of life forms that are present at a given depth.
475.7 Earth Patterns, Cycles and Change – Earth’s Changing Surface
485.7a Rock TypesRocks have properties that can be observed, tested, and described.Composition, grain size and textural features, color, and the presence of fossils help with identification.Classification keys can aid this process.GraniteGneissSlateLimestoneShaleSandstoneCoal
495.7a Rock TypesDepending on how rocks are formed, they are classified as sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphicSedimentaryIgneousMetamorphicLayers of sediment cemented togetherMelted and cooled (lava and magma)Changed by heat and pressure
505.7b Rock CycleRocks move and change over time due to heat and pressure within the Earth and to weathering, erosion, and deposition at the surface. These and other processes constantly change rock from one type to another.
515.7c Earth History and Fossil Evidence Scientific evidence indicates the Earth is very ancient, approximately 4.6 billion years old.The age of many rocks can be determined very reliably.Fossils provide information about life and conditions of the past.Many fossils are found in the sedimentary rocks of Virginia’s Appalachian Mountains, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain Regions
525.7d The Structure of Earth’s Interior Scientific evidence indicates that the Earth is composed of four concentric layers: crust, mantle, inner core, and outer core, each with its own distinct characteristics.The outer two layers are composed primarily of rocky material.The innermost layers are composed mostly of iron and nickel.Pressure and temperature increase with depth beneath the surface.
535.7e Plate TectonicsThe Earth’s thermal energy causes movement of material within the Earth.Large continent-size blocks (plates) move slowly about the Earth’s surface, driven by that thermal energy.Most earthquakes and volcanoes are located at the boundary of the plates (faults).
54Convergent Boundaries 5.7e Plate TectonicsPlate MovementConvergent BoundariesDivergent BoundariesTransform BoundariesWhere plates move togetherWhere plates move apartWhere plates slip past each other horizontallyAlso called strike-slip or sliding boundaries
555.7e Plate TectonicsGeological features in the oceans (including trenches and mid-ocean ridges) and on the continents (mountain ranges, including the Appalachian Mountains) are caused by current and past plate movements.
565.7f Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition Weathering – Breaking apart rocks by rain, wind, or other meansErosion – Moving away particles loosened by weatheringDeposition – Depositing of material in a new location
575.7f Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition Rocks and other materials on the Earth’s surface are constantly being broken down both chemically and physically.The products of weathering include clay, sand, rock fragments, and soluble substances.Material can be moved by water and wind and deposited in new locations as sediment.
585.7g Human ImpactHumans have varying degrees of impact on the Earth’s surface through their everyday activities.With careful planning, the impact on the land can be controlled.