Presentation on theme: "Science SOL Review 5 th Grade. 5.2 Force, Motion, and Energy - Sound."— Presentation transcript:
Science SOL Review 5 th Grade
5.2 Force, Motion, and Energy - Sound
5.2a Compression waves Sound – A form of energy produced and transmitted by vibrating matter Sound travels in compression (longitudinal) waves
5.2a Compression Waves Sound is a compression (longitudinal) wave moving back and forth from its source As sound waves travel, molecules are pressed together in some parts (compression) and in some parts are spread out (rarefaction). Wave – A disturbance moving through a medium (solid, liquid, gas)
5.2b Vibration, Compression, Wavelength, Frequency, Amplitude Frequency – the number of vibrations in a given unit of time Wavelength- the distance between two compressions or rarefactions Pitch – determined by the frequency of a vibrating object. Objects vibrating faster have a higher pitch than objects vibrating slower. Amplitude – the amount of energy in a compression wave related to intensity and volume
5.2c Transmitting Sound Sound travels more quickly through solids than through liquids and gases because the molecules of a solid are closer together. Sound travels most slowly through gases, because the molecules are farthest apart If there is no matter to transmit the sound, there is no sound, as in a vacuum.
5.2d Uses and Applications Some animals make and hear ranges of sound vibrations different from those that humans can make (voice) and hear Bats, dogs, and whales can hear and produce sounds at a much higher frequency than humans Whales, dolphins, and bats find objects using echolocation, which is locating an object using reflected sound.
5.2d Uses and Applications Humans use sonar to explore the ocean depths. Sonar is a device that locates underwater objects by sending out high frequency sound waves and recording their echoes.
5.2d Uses and Applications Musical instruments vibrate to produce sound: Brass instruments: vibrating air Woodwinds: vibrating reeds or vibrating air Percussion: vibrating surfaces Strings: vibrating strings
5.3 Force, Motion, and Energy - Light
5.3a Transverse Waves Light has properties of waves and particles. Light is energy. Light travels in Transverse waves, in which the particles of the medium move perpendicular to the direction the wave moves.
5.3a Transverse Waves Light travels in waves composed of a wavelength, crest (peak), and trough.
5.3b Visible Spectrum Visible light is a combination of several different wavelengths of light traveling together. These wavelengths are represented by the colors red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet ROYGBIV
5.3b Visible Spectrum Light waves are characterized by their wavelengths and frequency. In the visible spectrum, red has the longest wavelength, and violet has the shortest. Wavelengths get progressively shorter from red to violet.
5.3b Visible Spectrum Light waves travels much faster than sound Unlike sound, light waves travel in straight paths called rays and do not need a medium through which to move. A beam is a group of waves
5.3c Opaque, Transparent, and Translucent Light passes through some objects but is blocked by others. OpaqueTransparentTranslucent Opaque materials completely block light from passing through. Transparent materials allow light to pass through with little or no disturbance. Transparent objects may or may not color the light, but you can see objects clearly through them. Translucent materials allow only part of the light to pass through, while bouncing the rays off in many directions giving only a blurry view.
5.3d,e Reflection and Refraction Light travels in straight paths until it hits an object where it may be: reflected- bounced off refracted- bent transmitted- passed through the object or through the object or absorbed- taken in as heat as heat
5.3d Reflection If the surface of the medium contacted by the wave is smooth and polished (like a mirror), each reflected wave will be reflected back at the same angle as the incident wave. On the surface of a smooth pool of water, incident light is reflected in an orderly manner to produce a clear image of the scenery surrounding the pool. Throw a rock into the pool, and the water forms waves, which disrupt the reflection by scattering the reflected light rays in all directions.
5.3e Refraction The amount of bending of a light wave (refraction) depends on: The density of the material The wavelength of the light wave The angle at which the light wave enters the new medium
5.3e Refraction A prism can be used to refract visible light. When the different wavelengths of light in visible light pass through a prism, they are bent at different angles. The colors of light we see are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.
5.3d,e Reflection and Refraction A rainbow occurs from water droplets that act as both mirrors and prisms. The drops bend rays of sunlight at different angles, causing the colors to spread our. The colors are reflected off the back of the drops into our eyes.
Matter is anything that has mass and volume Mass is the amount of matter in an object The mass of an object does not change
5.4a Phases of Matter SolidLiquidGas Keep their shape and have a fixed size, shape, and volume Particles are packed tightly together (touching) and vibrate back and forth Take the shape of their container, but have fixed volume Particles are spread out a little and are able to slide past each other Take the size, shape, and volume of their container Particles are very spread out and move very quickly in all directions Matter can exist as a solid, liquid, or gas
5.4b Effect of Temperature temperature increases solid liquid gas particles move faster temperature decreases gas liquid solid particles move slower
5.4c Atoms and Elements All things, living and dead, are made of matter. All matter, regardless of its size, shape, or color, is made of particles (atoms and molecules) that are too small to be seen by the eye.
5.4c Atoms and Elements Atom The smallest particles of matter Cannot be divided into smaller parts without changing their properties Element More than 100 known elements that make up all matter The smallest part of an element is an atom
5.4d Molecules and Compounds MoleculeCompound The smallest whole bit of a substance Molecules are made of two or more atoms Two or more elements combined to form a new substance The smallest part of a compound is a molecule
5.4e Mixtures Including Solutions MixtureSolution A combination of two or more substances that do not lose their identifying characteristics when combined A mixture in which one substance dissolves in another
5.5 Living Systems – Characteristics of Organisms
5.5a Basic Cell Structures and Functions Living things are made of cells. Cells carry out all life processes. New cells come from existing cells. Cells are too small to be seen with the eye alone. By using a microscope, many parts of a cell can be seen.
5.5a Basic Cell Structures and Functions Plant Cells Rectangular shape Nucleus – The control center, holds the DNA Cell Wall – Provides support and protection to the cell membrane Cell Membrane – holds in cytoplasm, lets some materials go through Vacuole – Stores water Chloroplasts – Traps energy from the sun to produce food, contains chlorophyll (makes the plant green) Cytoplasm – The jelly-like substance
5.5a Basic Cell Structures and Functions Animal Cells Nucleus – The control center, holds the DNA Cell Membrane – holds in cytoplasm, lets some materials go through Cytoplasm – The jelly-like substance Vacuole – Storage area Round Shape
5.5b Classification Organisms that share similar characteristics can be organized into groups in order to help understand similarities and differences. Five Kingdoms MoneransProtistsFungiPlantsAnimals One-celled No nucleus Some make food, some don’t Example: bacteria Most are one- celled, but some are many-celled Have nucleus Some make food, some don’t Example: algae One-celled or many-celled Decomposer Examples: mold, mushroom Many-celled Make own food Has nucleus Examples: trees, roses Many-celled Very complex Obtain food from others Examples: Human, fish, bird
5.5b Classification VascularNonvascular Has special tissues to transport food and water Most plants are vascular Examples: Trees, flowering plants Does not have tissues to transport food and water Examples: Mosses, liverwort, hornwort Plants can be categorized as vascular or nonvascular Plants can be categorized as vascular or nonvascular
5.5b Classification Animals can be categorized as vertebrates or invertebrates VertebratesInvertebrates Have backbones Examples: Fish, amphibians, birds, mammals, reptiles Do not have backbones Examples: Sponges, jellyfish, worms, insects, crustaceans,
5.5c Survival Traits Organisms have many traits that allow them to survive in their environment. These include physical and behavioral characteristics, such as: A thick coat of fur to survive in cold climates A curved beak to catch prey Thick bark to protect against the cold winters Migration to avoid a cold winter Hibernation to survive a cold winter Becoming dormant during dry periods AND MANY MORE…
5.6 Earth/Space Systems - Oceans
5.6a Geological Characteristics Oceans cover about 70% of the surface of Earth Features: continental shelf, continental slope, continental rise These are covered with thick layers of sediments (sand, mud, rocks)
5.6b Physical Characteristics The depth of the ocean varies. Relatively shallow Progressively deepens Moderately deep Deep Very deep
5.6b Physical Characteristics Ocean water is a complex mixture of gases (air) and dissolved solids (salts, especially sodium chloride). Marine organisms are dependent on dissolved gases for survival. The salinity of ocean water varies in some places depending on rates of evaporation and amount of runoff from nearby land.
5.6b Physical Characteristics The basic motions of ocean water are the waves, currents, and tides. Ocean currents, including the Gulf Stream, are caused by wind patterns and the differences in water densities (due to salinity and temperature differences). Ocean currents affect the mixing of ocean waters. This can affect plant and animal populations. Currents also affect navigation routes. Tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon
5.6b Physical Characteristics The Gulf Stream
5.6b Physical Characteristics Waters on the continental shelf receive the most sunlight and can support most of the life in the oceans. Trenches receive no sunlight, are very cold, and experience extreme pressure. They support the least life.
5.6c Ecological Characteristics Plankton are tiny free-floating organisms in the water. Life in the oceans is dependent upon energy from the sun, dissolved gasses, currents, and minerals. Plankton flourish in areas where nutrient-rich water upwells from the deep. Phytoplankton form the base of the food web.
5.6c Ecological Characteristics As the depth of ocean water increases, the temperature decreases, the pressure increases, and the amount of light decreases. These factors influence the type of life forms that are present at a given depth.
5.7a Rock Types Rocks have properties that can be observed, tested, and described. Composition, grain size and textural features, color, and the presence of fossils help with identification. Classification keys can aid this process. GraniteGneissSlateLimestoneShaleSandstoneCoal
5.7a Rock Types Depending on how rocks are formed, they are classified as sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic SedimentaryIgneousMetamorphic Layers of sediment cemented together Melted and cooled (lava and magma) Changed by heat and pressure
5.7b Rock Cycle Rocks move and change over time due to heat and pressure within the Earth and to weathering, erosion, and deposition at the surface. These and other processes constantly change rock from one type to another.
5.7c Earth History and Fossil Evidence Scientific evidence indicates the Earth is very ancient, approximately 4.6 billion years old. The age of many rocks can be determined very reliably. Fossils provide information about life and conditions of the past. Many fossils are found in the sedimentary rocks of Virginia’s Appalachian Mountains, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain Regions
5.7d The Structure of Earth’s Interior Scientific evidence indicates that the Earth is composed of four concentric layers: crust, mantle, inner core, and outer core, each with its own distinct characteristics. The outer two layers are composed primarily of rocky material. The innermost layers are composed mostly of iron and nickel. Pressure and temperature increase with depth beneath the surface.
5.7e Plate Tectonics The Earth’s thermal energy causes movement of material within the Earth. Large continent-size blocks (plates) move slowly about the Earth’s surface, driven by that thermal energy. Most earthquakes and volcanoes are located at the boundary of the plates (faults).
5.7e Plate Tectonics Plate Movement Convergent Boundaries Divergent Boundaries Transform Boundaries Where plates move together Where plates move apart Where plates slip past each other horizontally Also called strike-slip or sliding boundaries
5.7e Plate Tectonics Geological features in the oceans (including trenches and mid- ocean ridges) and on the continents (mountain ranges, including the Appalachian Mountains) are caused by current and past plate movements.
5.7f Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition Weathering – Breaking apart rocks by rain, wind, or other means Erosion – Moving away particles loosened by weathering Deposition – Depositing of material in a new location
5.7f Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition Rocks and other materials on the Earth’s surface are constantly being broken down both chemically and physically. The products of weathering include clay, sand, rock fragments, and soluble substances. Material can be moved by water and wind and deposited in new locations as sediment.
5.7g Human Impact Humans have varying degrees of impact on the Earth’s surface through their everyday activities. With careful planning, the impact on the land can be controlled.