Presentation on theme: "The branch of biology concerned with the classification of organisms into groups based on similarities of structure, origin, etc."— Presentation transcript:
The branch of biology concerned with the classification of organisms into groups based on similarities of structure, origin, etc.
1750 Grouped living things by their PHYSICAL TRAITS Grouped things into KINGDOMS Gave all living things a two-part name Provided a ‘universal language’ for scientists when identifying organisms BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE Two Name Naming System
Each KINGDOM is further classified into more specific groups, much like addresses are organized into smaller categories. KingdomCountry PhylumState ClassCounty OrderTown FamilyNeighborhood GenusStreet SpeciesHouse Number
BACTERIAPROTISTFUNGUSPLANTANIMAL Number of Cells (single/multi) Single (except algae) Multi (except yeast) Multi Prokaryotic/ Eukaryotic ProkaryoticEukaryotic Producer/ConsumerBoth Consumer (decomposer) ProducerConsumer Mobile/Non-mobileBoth Non- mobile Mobile Cell Wall (yes/no) Yes (Cellulose) NoYes (Chitin) YesNo
SunflowerWolfAfrican Elephant BullfrogDogMushroom Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
ABCDE KINGDOMAnimailiaAnimaliaAnimailiaAnimaliaAnimailia PHYLUMChordata CLASSMammaliaMammailiaMammaliaMammailiaReptilia ORDERCarnivoraCetaceaCarnivoraCetaceaEusuchia FAMILYCanidaeDolphinidaeHyaenidaeDolphinidaeCercapithecidae GENUSLycaunTursiopsHyaenaOrcinusCrocodylus SPECIESpictusAduncusbrunneaorcaacutus 1.The scientific name is made up of what two classification groups? ___________________________ 2.What is the scientific name of organism 2? __________________________ 3.Which two organisms are most closely related? _________________ Why? 4.Which two organisms share the most traits in common? ____________________ 5.What organism is most distant from all the organisms listed? ________________ 6.Organism C and A are related because they share the same___________________? 7.Organism E and A are related because they share the same____________________? 8.Explain why organism B is like a human. 9.What kind of organism is a Hyaena brunnea? ____________________________ a Trusiops aduncus? ___________________
Since the Linnaean system focuses on physical similarities alone…molecular studies (genetic sequences) are not considered. Genetic similarities between two species are more likely than physical similarities to show ___________________________________ COMMON ANCESTORY
Carl Woese Revealed genetic differences in the DNA sequences of organisms Classified organisms into 3 DOMAINS BACTERIA ARCHAEA EUKARYA
Cladogram An evolutionary tree that suggests how species may be related Over evolutionary time, certain traits in a group of species, or clade, stay the same. Other traits change.
Derived Characters Derived characters are traits that are shared by some species but not by others The more closely related species are, the more derived characters they will share Derived characters are shown as hash marks
Nodes Each place where a branch splits is called a node. Nodes represent the most recent common ancestor shared by a clade.
What do the house cat and the turtle have in common? What does the leopard have in common with the wolf? What organisms are most closely related?
1.______ Dogs belong to the order Felidae. 2.______ A fox belongs to the phylum Arthropoda. 3. ______ Snakes belong to the phylum Reptilia. 4. ______ Lions belong to the class mammalia 5. ______ All arthropods belong to the Class Insecta 6. ______ All rodents belong to the phylum chordata. 7. ______ All amphibians belong to the class reptilia. 8. _______ All primates are mammals. 9. _______ The class mammalia includes dogs, cats and rats. 10. ______ A lion belongs to the genus Felis. 11. ______ All mammals are primates. 12. ______ Insects and lobsters are arthropods. In each set, circle the pair that is most closely related. 13. snakes & crocodiles | snakes & frogs 14. rats & cats | cats & dogs 15. insects & lobsters | insects & birds 16. lions & tigers | lions & cougars 17. foxes & rats | foxes & dogs 18. cats & dogs | cats & lions 19. List (use species name) all the animals pictured that belong in the Felidae family. 20. The image does not show orders of insects. Suggest three categories of insects that would likely be grouped into orders. Hint: think about what kind of insects there are. Add your three categories to the image. 21.Bonus: Create an addition to the image given the following information. a. Mollusks are divided into three classes: Class Cephalopoda (squids), Class Gastropoda (snails), Class Bivalve (clams and oysters) b. Cephalapods have a few orders, one of which is Octopoda (octopus) and and another is Teuthida (squids) c. The scientific name for the common octopus is Octopus vulgaris. d. The scientific name for the common european squid is Loligo vulgaris INTERPRETING TAXONOMY GRAPHS
1.a. Wings covered by a hard covering (exoskeleton)…….go to 2 b. Wings not covered by exoskeleton…….go to 3 2.a. Body is round shape…… b. Body is elongated…… Lady bug Grasshopper 3. a. Wings point toward the back……… b. Wings point toward the sides….. Go to 4 Housefly 4.a. Wings are large and broad……. b. Wings are long and thin…... Butterfly Dragonfly A tool used to determine the identity of an organism
EXAMPLE OF A DICHOTOMOUS KEY MONEY TAXONOMIC KEY 1 A. Metal go to 2 1 B. Paper go to 5 2 A. Brown (copper) penny 2 B. Silver go to 3 3 A. Smooth edge nickel. 3 B. Ridges around the edge go to 4 4 A. Torch on back dime 4 B. Eagle on back quarter
1. a. Needle leavesgo to 2 b. Non-needle leavesgo to 3 2. a. Needles are clusteredPine b. Needles are in singletsSpruce 3. a. Simple leaves (single leaf)go to 4 b. Compound leaves (made of “leaflets”)go to 7 4. a. Smooth edgedgo to 5 b. Jagged edgego to 6 5. a. Leaf edge is smoothMagnolia b. Leaf edge is lobedWhite Oak 6. a. Leaf edge is small and tooth-likeElm b. Leaf edge is large and thorny Holly 7. a. Leaflets are attached at one single pointChestnut b. Leaflets are attached at multiple pointsWalnut _____________
Considering the levels of classification, explain which organisms share the most traits in common? ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Considering the levels of classification, explain which organisms are most closely related. ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________
DO YOU HAVE “CLASS”? What are 2 reasons we classify things? Who was the person who named organisms with a two-part naming system? On what one aspect was the second classification system based? What is the Latin term we use in our naming system to classify/identify organisms? What are the 7 groups of classification, (from largest to smallest)? Which group is the most broad? The most specific? What two groups make up the scientific names of all organisms? *For order / To find things more easily*To show how things are similar Carolus Linnaeus Specific Traits Binomial Nomenclature Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species *Kingdom*Species Genus and species