Presentation on theme: "The elements of an argumentative essay.. According to Stephen Toulmin, arguments are composed of three main elements: Ω Claims Ω Data/Evidence Ω Warrants."— Presentation transcript:
According to Stephen Toulmin, arguments are composed of three main elements: Ω Claims Ω Data/Evidence Ω Warrants
He was born in England in 1922. He was a philosopher and rhetorical theorist. He taught at USC from 1993-2009. In 1958, he offered his model of argumentation: a way to compare “truths.”
Ω First of all, what it is not. It is not a fight. Although you may, and probably should, feel passionate about your topic, arguments are supposed to be intellectual activities not shouting matches. Ω However, an argument does involve two opposing points of view. This means that you must include the opposing side, even if only briefly.
Ω Claim, data, warrant (CDW) is a formal and logical writing style. Ω CDW helps you PROVE your thoughts in a logical way using evidence. Ω It also can be used for answering open response questions, discussion questions, or writing paragraphs & essays. Ω You can use it in any class.
It is what you already know how to do with writing: Ω Claim – a thesis about a topic Ω Data – the support (evidence) about a topic Ω Warrant – a general, unspoken rule that most people would agree upon
When a prompt asks you to support, refute, or qualify a statement, use this method.
This is the main point of the argument. What you are trying to prove. Example: The school lunch program contributes to childhood obesity.
Ω Includes facts, statistics, authorities, SOLID opinion, and examples all usually from source material depending on the claim. Example: On October 5, Mesa Public Schools served two options for lunch: pizza and burritos. The pizza contained 21 grams of fat, and the burrito contained 15 grams of fat. A healthy meal should contain no more than 7 grams of fat (Donovan 3).
Ω An assumption/rule which shows the connection between the claim and the evidence. Example: Feeding students lunches with wit high fat contents will cause students to acquire extra pounds. NOTE: The warrant must be widely accepted or believed to be true by the majority of the public.
Ω Sometimes it helps to create a diagram of the claim, data, and warrant that looks like the example below. Claim----------------------------------------------Data Lunch program is badPizza/burritos have high fat content Warrant: Fatty lunches cause obesity.
Definition: A claim states your position on the issue/topic you have chosen to write about. It answers the questions: Ω What point will your essay or paragraph try to make? AND Ω What belief or opinion will you be defending?
Ω What you are claiming is true. Ω Your clear and provable opinion about the subject. Ω Called the Main Claim in the introduction. Ω Called a Sub-Claim when the topic sentence of a body paragraph
Ω A good claim is logical; it emerges from the reasonable consideration of evidence. Ω A good claim is debatable. Claims that are purely factual, and claims that are only opinion fail this requirement. You cannot argue mattes of personal taste. Fact: There are many homeless people in the US. Taste: Comedies are better than dramas.
Ω A good claim is not obvious. Why bother proving a point with which nobody could disagree? Ω A good claim is engaging. Consider your audience’s attention span and make an interesting claim which points out new ideas: teach the reader something new. Ω A good claim is not overly vague. It is specific. Attacking enormous issues leads only to generalizations and vague assertions.
Definition: The evidence which you cite to support your claim. Like a lawyer presenting evidence to a jury, you must support your claim with facts; and unsupported claim is merely an opinion.
Facts or Statistics: a point of evidence that claims some objective Expert Testimony: a stated opinion be a person experienced in the field Case Study: a study based on facts and statistics that explains a point
Ω Examples to support your claim Ω Cited quotes from the text to support your claim Ω Cited references to the text to support your claim Ω Cited statistics to support your claim Ω Content specific vocabulary that supports your claim
Given the following claim, choose the evidence that would most effectively support the claim. Claim: Social networking websites are detrimental to society.
1. According to the 2007 National School Boards Report, teens spend an average of 9 hours per week on social networking sites. 2. A 2009 study found that 17.3% of middle school students have been victims of cyberbullying. 3. My mom hates Facebook because I am on it all the time. 4. A 2009 study found that 2/3 of workers with Facebook accounts access the site during work hours. 5. A friend of mine posted pictures of a teen party showing teenagers participating in illicit activities and clearly breaking the law. 6. One out of every five students admits to posting bad things on a social media network. 7. I have been cyberbullied several times including people posting pictures of me.
Definition: The warrant interprets the evidence and shows how it connects to the claim. It is a general assumption that most people agree upon or believe to be true. In other words, the warrant/rule explains why the evidence proves the claim. It is the most important part. If it is not strong and logical, it will ruin your argument. It is probably the most difficult part to write.
Ω The explanation of how the evidence support the claim. Ω Explains how the example, statistic, quote, or reference supports the claim. Ω Explains the significance of the evidence.
Ω A good warrant will be a reasonable explanation of facts.. Ω A good warrant will not make unreasonable explanation or leaps. It is logical. Ω A good warrant may consider and respond to possible counter-arguments.
Ω Sometimes it helps to create a diagram of the claim, data, and warrant that looks like the example below. Claim----------------------------------------------Data Smoking is badIt can cause diseases. Warrant: Smoking can cause lung cancer.
Claim: People should not eat that mushroom. Data/Evidence: The mushroom is poisonous. Warrant/Rule: Eating poisonous foods is dangerous.
Claim: The seniors should not elect Mike to be class president. Data/Evidence: Mike is way too laid back. Warrant/Rule: Laid back people do not make good class presidents.
Ω A claim is made. Ω Evidence is produced in the form of logical facts. Ω The Warrant connects the Evidence/Data to the Claim.
Students are not going to do well on the test Very few students studied. Most of the time, when students don’t study, their grades suffer.
Since it is raining today, Jane should take her umbrella. The umbrella will keep her dry.
1. Claim 2. Introduce first piece of evidence (cite if needed) 3. Warrant 4. Transition and second pieces of evidence (cite if needed) 5. Warrant 6. More evidence or conclusion