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The Fungus Among Us The strange and fascinating world of our most visible decomposers.

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Presentation on theme: "The Fungus Among Us The strange and fascinating world of our most visible decomposers."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Fungus Among Us The strange and fascinating world of our most visible decomposers

2 What we WON’T do: Learn to identify edible mushrooms Freak out because there are approximately 10,000 fungal spores in each cubic meter of air Panic because we have Pneumocystis carinii living in our lungs right now (yes, YOUR lungs)

3 What we WILL do: Learn about unique reproduction strategies Appreciate that fungi are essential for life on this planet Delight in all the ways that fungi make our lives richer

4 Characteristics of Fungi Eukaryotic heterotrophs – digestion is external Chitin in cell walls – same chemical as found in insect exoskeletons Dikaryotic stage (some) – cells fuse (plasmogamy) but nuclei don’t! – therefore cells are n+n instead of 2n

5 Terminology -gamy = marriage or fusion -karyon = nucleus -plasm = gel inside cell -ploid = sets of chromosomes (1n, 2n) spore = 1n cell that can germinate into a fully functional 1n cell myco = fungus

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7 Functions saprobes (decomposers) – up to armpits in dead bodies without them – nutrient cycles come to a halt (carbon, nitrogen, etc.) parasites/pathogens – you name it, including other fungi mutualists – you name it – especially important: plants ( ~ 90% of all plants MUST have fungal associations)

8 Ectomycorrhizae vs. Arbuscular mycorrhizae

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14 Unicellular fungi = yeast Multicellular: functional unit = hypha mushroom = fruiting body

15 ONLY fungi with motile cells Chytrids

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17 http://frogmatters.wordpress.com/2008/03/ http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/animals/FrogChytridFungus.htm Chytrid infection of frogs has caused extinction of several species across the world. Ease of global travel has exacerbated the problem.

18 Glomeromycota: ONLY reproduce asexually, NONE are unicellular EXTREMELY important function: arbuscular mycorrhizae from: http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.nature.com/ncomms/journal/v1/n4/images_article/ncomms1046- f4.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.nature.com/ncomms/journal/v1/n4/full/ncomms1046.html&usg=__7YegfK1Kf9F35TIwzcySA- _ewp0=&h=411&w=600&sz=80&hl=en&start=21&sig2=8ks-42yCpXd5mTIoNyp4YA&zoom=1&tbnid=eVz- gQfOr2MucM:&tbnh=112&tbnw=163&ei=pending&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dglomerulomycete%26hl%3Den%26biw%3D1276%26bih%3D558%26gbv%3D2 %26tbs%3Disch:10%2C503&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=829&vpy=179&dur=2964&hovh=186&hovw=271&tx=129&ty=120&oei=2E6WTPvYIc6dnwel0MyeBw&e sq=2&page=2&ndsp=22&ved=1t:429,r:12,s:21&biw=1276&bih=558

19 Glomeromycota

20 http://life8eiml.sinauer.com/Animations/Chapter30/Animation-30-01.swf WEIRD!

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24 aka Cup Fungi

25 Saccharomyces cerevisiae favorite ‘cup’ fungus = Brewer’s & Baker’s yeast!! Penicilium varieties responsible for Roquefort cheese and antibiotics!

26 http://americanmushrooms.com/coolest.htm

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28 Mushroom Structure http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://fungalguide.landcareresearch.co.nz/Images/MushroomDiagram.jpg&imgrefurl=http://fungalguide.landcareresearch.co.nz/WebForms/FG_About.aspx&usg =__MPTyhWk_-4gq6NXoTEPNv879uFo=&h=490&w=500&sz=50&hl=en&start=0&sig2=LQ_ilJDUBLdMLQWzxs_WHA&zoom=1&tbnid=JVlyrP5HGZ2xLM:&tbnh=132&tbnw=135&ei=dl- WTJi1HIe2nAelxeWlBw&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmushroom%2Bstructure%26hl%3Den%26biw%3D1276%26bih%3D558%26gbv%3D2%26tbs%3Disch:1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=1006&vpy=60&dur=1 87&hovh=222&hovw=227&tx=133&ty=132&oei=dl-WTJi1HIe2nAelxeWlBw&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:5,s:0

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31 3 feet in length, ~20 lbs! http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/3839363.stm http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EF65xGRNfwo http://healthyhomegardening.com/Most_Viewed_Pages.php?m1=12

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35 http://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=GScyw3ammmk http://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=e1E48_W0DS4 http://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=q7Qem8OloIY&featur e=related

36 Common smut (Ustilago maydis) on an ear of corn.

37 Deuteromycete Pneumocystis carinii in human sputum.

38 Penicillium sp. growing on agar.

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