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Kingdom Fungi U:\Lloyd Bio\Biology__The_Science_of_Lif e__The_World_of_Fungi.asf.

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Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Fungi U:\Lloyd Bio\Biology__The_Science_of_Lif e__The_World_of_Fungi.asf."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kingdom Fungi U:\Lloyd Bio\Biology__The_Science_of_Lif e__The_World_of_Fungi.asf

2 1. General Characteristics a.Type of Cell = Eukaryotic *Most have a cell wall containing CHITIN, a tough, flexible carbohydrate

3 General Characteristics b.Number of Cells per Individual = Most are multicellular; Yeast is unicellular

4 c.Mode of Nutrition = ALL are Heterotrophic Cells produce digestive enzymes that are secreted onto the food source. The digested food is then absorbed into the cells. ( = External Digestion)

5 General Characteristics d. Respiration = Most are aerobic; Yeast is a facultative anaerobic

6 General Characteristics e.Reproduction = Asexually by spore production Sexually ( also produces a spore)

7 General Characteristics f.Size = Most are macroscopic; Some are microscopic

8 General Characteristics g. Habitat = *Most prefer dark, damp areas (either terrestrial or aquatic) that provide a food source. *Moisture is needed by all to move digested nutrients into the cells.

9 2. General Structures a.HYPHAE = * a thread-like structure composed of connecting cells * Responsible for secreting digestive enzymes and absorbing digested nutrients (external digestion)



12 b.MYCELIUM *The total mass of hyphae *The main body of the fungus *Grows within the food source *Gives rise to the fruiting body.

13 Mycelium

14 Fungal mycelium in a rotting tree

15 Fungal mycelium growing on agar in a Petri dish


17 Structures c.FRUITING BODY The reproductive structure; Produces spores; The most visible and recognizable part of most fungi.


19 Spores from Fruiting Body

20 3. Classification of Fungi Mycetes = “ Fungus ” a.Phylum Zygomycota = * Thread-like fungi * 1. Produce spores from a container at the tip of a microscopic thread.

21 Zygomycota 2.Examples = Black bread mold, molds on fruits, cheeses, and meats.

22 Zygomycota 2. Structure SPORANGIA = produce spores Surface of the food source Stalk Stolon Mycelium

23 Zygomycota Black Bread Mold


25 b. Ascomycota * The cup or sac fungi * 1. Spores are produced in an ascus = a container that resembles a cup or small sack.

26 Ascomycota 2. Largest phylum = accounts for 75% of all fungi. 3. Examples= a. Brewer’s yeast = used in the production of bread and beer.

27 Brewer’s yeast Budding yeast

28 Examples b. Penicillium = source of the antibiotic penicillin. Penicillium growing in a Petri dish.

29 Examples c. Candida yeast = common skin inhabitant; cause of thrush, diaper rash, and other yeast infections.

30 Thrush Yeast infection of the tongue

31 Examples d. Morels = an edible variety of cup fungi.

32 Examples e. Many form symbiotic (live in direct contact) relationships with various species of algae to form a LICHEN. * The algae uses photosynthesis to produce food for both organisms * The fungi provides a home and collects water for both organisms.

33 Lichens

34 c. Basidiomycota * The Club Fungi * 1. Spores produced from a club-shaped structure called a basidium. 2. Most familiar group of fungi.

35 Basidiomycota 3. Examples = Mushrooms

36 Examples Puffballs

37 Examples Bracket Fungi

38 Mushroom Fairy Ring

39 4. Mushroom Life Cycle Create diagram in space provide below:

40 4. Importance A.Positives 1. Important decomposers * Break down waste, dead organisms, etc.

41 2. Used to produce medicines a.Antibiotics such as Penicillin & Cephalosporin b.Antifungals = Griseofulvin c.Immunosuppressants = Cyclosporin d.Cholesterol reducing drugs

42 3.Some are edible * White cap mushrooms * Portabella mushrooms * Shittake mushrooms ** PA is a major producer of edible mushrooms ** * Truffles ($$$$) (not a mushroom!)

43 Truffles

44 Truffle Hunting with dogs and pigs.

45 Positives 4. Used in food production: a. Yeast used to make bread dough rise (CO 2 ) and to add alcohol to beverages.

46 Positives b.Adds a distinctive flavor to various cheeses * Blue Cheese * Roquefort * Gorgonzola

47 Blue Cheese

48 B.Negatives 1. Decomposers = destroy items we want: * Cause food to spoil * Damage wood, cloth, paper, plastics

49 Negatives 2.Pathogens * In animals: - Athlete’s foot

50 Pathogens - Thrush (on tongue) - Ringworm

51 Pathogens - Mucormycosis A fungal infection of the sinuses, brain, or lungs; can lead to decomposition of tissue.

52 Mycormycosis

53 Pathogens - Ergotism = *From eating rye infected with a specific fungus *Can cause convulsive and gangrenous symptoms. * Associated with the Salem Witch Trials.

54 Pathogens * In Plants = many types that destroy plants and prevent crops from thriving: - Wheat rust - Corn smut

55 Fungal Plant Pathogens Black knot on Cherry trees in PA

56 Powdery mildew on leaves

57 Negatives 3.Some are extremely poisonous Many common species of the deciduous forest are toxic. WARNING: Only eat mushrooms purchased in the store !

58 Poisonous Mushrooms - Fly Agaric

59 Poisonous Mushrooms


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