2Kingdom ProtistaThe most diverse of all organisms, Protists are mostly single celled and microscopic.A few species are more complex and multicellular.Protists can be Autotrophic or Heterotrophic or in the case of euglenoids….both.
3Protists- The first Protists originated 1 Protists- The first Protists originated 1.5 billion years ago from complex bacteria that incorporated mitochondria and chloroplasts from the outside environment.They developed a nuclear membrane around the DNA to protect it.They were larger than bacteria and could perform more specialized tasks than their predecessors.
4They began to develop a means of reproduction bacteria could not use… They began to develop a means of reproduction bacteria could not use….Sexual Reproduction.All Protists are also classified as Eukaryotes as they have membrane-bound organelles and distinct Nuclei.All Protists exhibit some form of mobility.Protists are the predecessors of Fungi, Plants and Animals.
5Basic categories of Protists 1 Basic categories of Protists 1. Algae- Photosynthetic, living in environments where sunlight is available 2. Protozoans- Non-photosynthetic, living in water or inside of host organisms.
6Unicellular, Heterotrophic, Move by Pseudopods. Ex. Amoeba RhizopodaUnicellular, Heterotrophic, Move by Pseudopods. Ex. Amoeba
7ForaminiferaUnicellular, heterotrophic, have shells with pores, Examples H. depressa
8BacillariophytaUnicellular and Photosynthetic, glass shell made silica. Examples----Diatoms
9ChlorophytaUnicellular, colonies, multicelled and photosynthetic. Have green cholorophyll A and B. Examples includes, spirogyra, volvox, and chlamydomonas
10RhodophytaMulticellular and Photosynthetic, has phycobilins (red cholorophyll), includes red seaweeds and algae that causes Red Tides
11PhaeophytaMulticellular and Photosynthetic, Chlorophyll C and Fucoxanthins. (Brown Algae and Brown Seaweed) Examples include Sargassum and Kelp
12DinoflagellatesUnicellular, Heterotrophic and Autotrophic species. Shells of cellulose plates. Chlorophyll a,c and carotenoids. Move by flagella ….Examples: Noctiluca
13ZoomastiginaUnicellular and Heterotrophic. Have at least one Flagellum. Parasitic and live in hosts. Ex. Trypanosoma
14EuglenophytaUnicellular and Both Photosynthetic and Heterotrophic. Single flagella, Ex. Euglena
15CiliophoraUnicellular and Heterotropic. Have many rows of cilia for movement. Ex. Paramecium, Stentor and Vorticella
16AcrasiomycotaUnicellular Fungus-like heterotrophs that form masses called “slugs”. Produce spores. Examples include Cellular Slime Molds
17MyxomycotaUnicellular but collect in colonies. Heterotrophic and fungus like. Plasmodial Slime molds. Examples include Physarum
18OomycotaUnicellular Parasites and Heterotrophs. A decomposer like fungi. Examples include water mold, white rust and mildews.
19ApicomycotaUnicellular, Heterotrophic. Non motile. Complex Animal parasites that live in blood or tissues. Examples include Plasmodium, Toxoplasma and the Plasmoidals that causes Malaria.
21Kingdom FungiHeterotrophic and Generally Multicelled, they are primary decomposers and occasionally parasites. They absorb nutrients after external digestion by enzymes.Follow the Haploid Life Cycle….Most are long and filamentous but are identified by the reproductive structures they produce. Almost all reproduce sexually by Spores.The cell wall structure of a mushroom is made of Chitin, its slender thread-like structure is called the Hyphae and a mass of hyphae is called a mycelium
23BasidiomycotaOften referred to as the “Club” Fungi. Includes mushrooms, toadstools, shelf and bracket fungi. Most field mushroom are edible but avoid the red caps of the poisonous Fly Agaric and the AmanitaNumber of species…16,000
24Structure of a common mushroom On the sides of the Gills are the basidia, the spore producing structure of the mushroom….
26AscomycotaOften referred to as the “Cup or Sac” fungi….reproductive structure is the Ascus… includes. Morels, truffles. Yeasts, puffballs and earth stars.Species number is 30,000
27ZygomycotaReproductive structure is the Zygosporangium. Filamentous fungi that is common to food molds such as black and green bread molds. Species numbers are 665
28Fungi Imperfecti (Deuteromycota) Imperfect fungi lack traditional spore forming structures…..most are powder like molds like penicillin & aspergillis and also includes plant rusts and smuts.Yeasts are also considered in this group.
29LichenLichen of all types exhibit a symbiotic relationship between Terrestrial Fungi and Aquatic Algae. The Fungi provides a place for the algae to live and the algae provide fungi with organic food. Includes species like, encrusting Lichen, Wolfsbane, British soldiers and Spanish Moss. Species 15,000
30MychorrhizaeSymbiotic relationship between Plants and Fungi….Fungi increases surface area for plant room systems and the uptake of vital minerals. In return, the fungi get organic food from the plant…..80% of all plant species use mychorrhizae …..Species numbers 5,000…..