Presentation on theme: "Protists and Fungi. Kingdom Protista The most diverse of all organisms, Protists are mostly single celled and microscopic. A few species are more complex."— Presentation transcript:
Protists and Fungi
Kingdom Protista The most diverse of all organisms, Protists are mostly single celled and microscopic. A few species are more complex and multicellular. Protists can be Autotrophic or Heterotrophic or in the case of euglenoids….both.
Protists- The first Protists originated 1.5 billion years ago from complex bacteria that incorporated mitochondria and chloroplasts from the outside environment. They developed a nuclear membrane around the DNA to protect it. They were larger than bacteria and could perform more specialized tasks than their predecessors.
They began to develop a means of reproduction bacteria could not use….Sexual Reproduction. All Protists are also classified as Eukaryotes as they have membrane-bound organelles and distinct Nuclei. All Protists exhibit some form of mobility. Protists are the predecessors of Fungi, Plants and Animals.
Basic categories of Protists 1. Algae- Photosynthetic, living in environments where sunlight is available 2. Protozoans- Non-photosynthetic, living in water or inside of host organisms.
Rhizopoda Unicellular, Heterotrophic, Move by Pseudopods. Ex. Amoeba
Foraminifera Unicellular, heterotrophic, have shells with pores, Examples H. depressa
Bacillariophyta Unicellular and Photosynthetic, glass shell made silica. Examples----Diatoms
Chlorophyta Unicellular, colonies, multicelled and photosynthetic. Have green cholorophyll A and B. Examples includes, spirogyra, volvox, and chlamydomonas
Rhodophyta Multicellular and Photosynthetic, has phycobilins (red cholorophyll), includes red seaweeds and algae that causes Red Tides
Phaeophyta Multicellular and Photosynthetic, Chlorophyll C and Fucoxanthins. (Brown Algae and Brown Seaweed) Examples include Sargassum and Kelp
Dinoflagellates Unicellular, Heterotrophic and Autotrophic species. Shells of cellulose plates. Chlorophyll a,c and carotenoids. Move by flagella ….Examples: Noctiluca
Zoomastigina Unicellular and Heterotrophic. Have at least one Flagellum. Parasitic and live in hosts. Ex. Trypanosoma
Euglenophyta Unicellular and Both Photosynthetic and Heterotrophic. Single flagella, Ex. Euglena
Ciliophora Unicellular and Heterotropic. Have many rows of cilia for movement. Ex. Paramecium, Stentor and Vorticella
Acrasiomycota Unicellular Fungus-like heterotrophs that form masses called “slugs”. Produce spores. Examples include Cellular Slime Molds
Myxomycota Unicellular but collect in colonies. Heterotrophic and fungus like. Plasmodial Slime molds. Examples include Physarum
Oomycota Unicellular Parasites and Heterotrophs. A decomposer like fungi. Examples include water mold, white rust and mildews.
Apicomycota Unicellular, Heterotrophic. Non motile. Complex Animal parasites that live in blood or tissues. Examples include Plasmodium, Toxoplasma and the Plasmoidals that causes Malaria.
Life cycle of toxoplasmoids
Kingdom Fungi Heterotrophic and Generally Multicelled, they are primary decomposers and occasionally parasites. They absorb nutrients after external digestion by enzymes. Follow the Haploid Life Cycle…. Most are long and filamentous but are identified by the reproductive structures they produce. Almost all reproduce sexually by Spores. The cell wall structure of a mushroom is made of Chitin, its slender thread-like structure is called the Hyphae and a mass of hyphae is called a mycelium
Bozeman Fungi 6wM 6wM
Basidiomycota Often referred to as the “Club” Fungi. Includes mushrooms, toadstools, shelf and bracket fungi. Most field mushroom are edible but avoid the red caps of the poisonous Fly Agaric and the Amanita Number of species…16,000
Structure of a common mushroom On the sides of the Gills are the basidia, the spore producing structure of the mushroom….
Ascomycota Often referred to as the “Cup or Sac” fungi….reproductive structure is the Ascus… includes. Morels, truffles. Yeasts, puffballs and earth stars. Species number is 30,000
Zygomycota Reproductive structure is the Zygosporangium. Filamentous fungi that is common to food molds such as black and green bread molds. Species numbers are 665
Fungi Imperfecti (Deuteromycota) Imperfect fungi lack traditional spore forming structures…..most are powder like molds like penicillin & aspergillis and also includes plant rusts and smuts. Yeasts are also considered in this group.
Lichen Lichen of all types exhibit a symbiotic relationship between Terrestrial Fungi and Aquatic Algae. The Fungi provides a place for the algae to live and the algae provide fungi with organic food. Includes species like, encrusting Lichen, Wolfsbane, British soldiers and Spanish Moss. Species 15,000
Mychorrhizae Symbiotic relationship between Plants and Fungi….Fungi increases surface area for plant room systems and the uptake of vital minerals. In return, the fungi get organic food from the plant…..80% of all plant species use mychorrhizae …..Species numbers 5,000…..