Presentation on theme: "The Study of Fungi is called Mycology"— Presentation transcript:
1The Study of Fungi is called Mycology Kingdom FungiThe Study of Fungi is called MycologyWhat is probably the largest living organism on earth has been discovered in the Malheur National Forest in eastern Oregon. A fungus living three feet underground is estimated to cover 2,200 acres. After testing samples from various locations, scientists say it is all one organism. Officially known as Armillaria ostoyae, or the honey mushroom, the fungus is 3.5 miles across and takes up 1,665 football fields. The small mushrooms visible above ground are only the tip of the iceberg.Experts estimate that the giant mushroom is at least 2,400 years old, but could be 7,200 years old.
2Members of the Kingdom Fungi are: Multicellular, except for Yeasts which are single-cellularAre all EukaryotesAre All Heterotrophs.. “Absorptive Feeders”Most have cell walls made of Chitin (sugar)Most are sedentary ..(they don’t move around, they live their lives anchored somewhere)
3Foods are digested using enzymes. Fungi are “Exofeeders” … they digest their foods externally before they ingest (absorb) the digested nutrients through their cell walls.Foods are digested using enzymes.
4Fungi live and grow in their food….. Fungi can FactsFungi live and grow in their food….. Fungi canonly be seen when their fruiting bodies emerge…. By then it’s too late!
5FactsCell Walls are either partial or absent………. The cytosol is circulated through simple cyclosis.
6Ecological Role Fungi are the great recyclers …. The major role of Fungi is as DecomposersFungi are the great recyclers ….They are Saprophytes…they feed on organic compounds that they absorb from dead organisms in the environment.
17What looks like dust is actually spores being released. When conditions dictate the Mycelium develops into a Fruiting Body which produces Spores.What looks like dust is actually spores being released.
18Fossil records show they first appeared about 460 MYA. EvolutionFungi arose through Endosymbiosis from early prokaryotes.Fossil records show they first appeared about 460 MYA.
19*** Sexual Reproduction occurs through Conjugation. Fungi ReproductionFungi reproduce both sexually and asexually3 Types of Asexual reproduction1. fragmentation: the breaking up of hypha2. budding: the pinching off of a small hypha outgrowth3. asexual spores: dispersing haploid (n) reproductive cells*** Sexual Reproduction occurs through Conjugation.Conjugation is the process by which two organisms exchange or join their DNA.
20Classification of Fungi mostly classified by the shape of the “Fruiting Bodies” The “Fruiting Bodies” are the reproductive structures.Phylum Zygomycota (molds, bread mold, etc..)Phylum Basidiomycota(mushrooms, puff balls, bracket fungi)Phylum Ascomycota (cup fungi, yeast)Phylum Deuteromycota (Imperfect fungi)
27Phylum Basidiomycota “Club Fungi” MushroomsPuffballsShelf (Bracket) FungiUnderground mycelia grow upward to produce a reproductive structure called a basidiocarp. This basidiocarp is what we call a mushroom.Basidiospores are produced on the basidia, reproductive structures, which are found on the edges of the gills.
28Structures of a Mushroom Fruiting BodyCapGills made up of Basidia ….Which produce the Basidiospores.Stalk: Holds the Cap above the ground…. Aids in spore dispersion.Mycelium (hyphae) and soil
29The Basidia “clubs” produce the spores (basdiospores) BasidiosporesGills: made up of basisdiaBasidium
37Shelf, or Bracket FungiCommon Name: Turkey Tails
38Phylum Ascomycota “Cup Fungi” YeastMildewsThe largest group of fungiNamed for the reproductive cups or Asci. Ascospores are formed here and released into the air when the asci rupture. These spores germinate to form new hyphae.
39Yeasts (Saccharomyces) 400X Unicellular Fungi used to Genetically engineer Vaccines Yeasts reproduce by “Budding”. Budding is an Asexual form of reproduction.BudsYeast CellBudYeast Cell
42Asexual SporesWhen magnified the insides of the cups are made of thousands of tubes, each tube is called an ascus… the ascospores form inside the asci (tubes).ascusascosporesAsci: inner lining of the cup.
50Many Fungi are involved in Mycorhizzae relationships…Over 90% of plants have fungi living near or on with their root systems. The Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals, and nitrogen, for the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.lack septadon’t produce zygospores
51Common Industrial Uses for Fungi Used to make Antibiotics…Penicillium mold used to produce PenicillinYeast used in BakingYeasts used in Genetic EngineeringUsed a FoodsUsed to Detoxify water and soilsUsed to make Gasohol.
52The Wrong Fungi can Kill You!! WHY? They can infect internal organs… such as your liver, kidneys, lungs, etc….They can contain potent toxins!They can induce lethal allergic reactions!Very Few are Edible…and they are very hard to identify!!Their SPORES alone can kill you!
53A mutualism consists between the fungi and the photosynthetic algae. LichenA mutualism consists between the fungi and the photosynthetic algae.The algae provides food, the fungus provides the physical environment by trapping water and giving the algae a place to live.The chemical decomposition of rocks by lichens contributes to the production of soils.
54Lichen has 3 stages of growth 1. Crustose2. Foliose3. Fruticose