What is Fruit? Fruit = an organ that develops from the ovary of a flowering plant and contains one or more seeds. (no other food group offers a greater variety of colors, flavors, and textures than fruit. Fructose = sweetness of fruits, a natural form of sugar What culinary creations can we use fruit for?
Fruit Classifications Fruits are classified by growing season and location There are 3 main groups: Summer = berries, cherries, grapes, melons, peaches, nectarines, plums, and pears. Winter = citrus fruits and apples Tropical = figs, dates, kiwis, mangos, bananas, papayas, pomegranates, and passion fruit
Summer Fruits Most summer fruits are delicious raw, and they are also popular baked or cooked in different foods. Berries = highly perishable, tender, and fragile (Blackberries, boysenberries, blueberries, raspberries and strawberries) Cherries = numerous varieties, come in many shades of red ( Vary in texture, most popular variety are sweet dark cherries Dupes = Along w/cherries, plums, peaches, nectarines and apricots are dupes because they have a central pit enclosing a single seed.
Summer Fruit Grapes = grow in clusters on vines, available with of w/out seeds (they are considered a berry, because they come in so many varieties) (2 of the most popular are California Seedless – suitable for both cooking and eating raw and Napoleon Red – good table variety Melons = most related to vegetable: squash and cucumber (Categorized into 2 groups sweet melons and watermelons) Sweet Melons = cantaloupe, muskmelon, and honeydew (characterized by tan, green or yellow skin, rind is very tough and flesh is rich and flavorful) Watermelons = smooth, thick green skin, much larger in size (flesh of watermelons is deep pink w/a light crisp texture) (attractive when cut into decorative shapes
Summer Fruits Peaches = sweet and juicy w/a fuzzy skin Two categories 1. Freestone = peaches separates easily from the pit. 2. Clingstone = peaches have flesh that clings to the pit Apricots = resembles peaches w/ fuzzy skin, but are smaller and slightly drier Nectarines = similar to peaches in color, shape and flavor, but have smooth skin * Available fresh, frozen, canned, dried, preserved, and as juice
Summer Fruits Plums = range in size from as small as an apricot to as large as a peach (come in many shades of green, red, and purple) Two categories: Dessert Cooking = generally drier and more acidic than dessert Pears = sweet taste and smooth, juicy flesh (most common are Bartlett, Bosc and Seckel) Pears do not ripen entirely on the tree, they are picked and continue ripening on their own.
Winter Fruit Winter Fruits = include citrus fruits and apples. Citrus Fruits = characterized by thick skins, aromatic oils, and segmented flesh, they are also abundant in vitamin C. The most common fruits are oranges, grapefruits, lemons, limes, tangelos, and tangerines. Can be served fresh, candied and as juice etc.) Apples = Most common are Red Delicious, Rome, McIntosh, and Granny Smith. Tart apples are juiced for cooking and baking, sweet apples are best when eaten raw. (Look at chart 11.5 on page 429)
Tropical Fruits Tropical Fruits = named for the climatic conditions under which they are grown, and include figs, dates, kiwis, mangos, bananas, papayas, pomegranates, and passion fruit. Bananas = most common of tropical fruits (picked green, rich in carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins, minerals and potassium) Figs = versatile fruit, are green or black. Used in baking pies, cookies, and cakes. (can be purchased fresh, candied or dried) Kiwis = fuzzy skin and bright green-colored flesh. Inside has tiny edible seeds, excellent garnish or adding color and texture to food.
Tropical Fruits Mangos = medium-sized, thick-skinned fruits. They have a light yellow flesh and spicy-sweet flavor. Papayas = soft, juicy, pink-orange flesh w/ a central mass of black seeds. Excellent source of vitamins A and C, content of vitamin C increases as they ripen. Pineapple = purchased fresh or canned, used in baking and can be pureed to make fresh pineapple juice Coconuts = grown in South America, India, Hawaii. Several layers (outer layer smooth (usually removed), next is dark hairy shell, beneath is a thin brown skin covering the bright white meat) – Ripe coconut shou7ld be heavy and sound full of liquid when shaken
Questions??? 1. Place the following fruits into their appropriate category: PeachGrapefruitFigCherry KiwiAppleCoconutPapaya GrapeTangerinePineappleBanana 2.Fruit contains a natural form of sugar called_____________that gives it its natural sweetness and flavor. 3.Cherries, plums, peaches and nectarines, are know as___________because they contain a single seed enclosed by a pit in the center of the fruit. 4.Two categories of peaches are___________&_____________. 5.Using you cafeteria as an example, how are some of the fruits in this section most commonly presented and served? 6.How many servings of fruit do you usually eat in one day?
Identifying Vegetables 11.2
Vegetables Vegetable = edible herb-like plant. The parts of vegetables that we eat include the leaves, fruit, stems, roots, tubers, seeds, and flowers. Vegetables are often categorized by their botanical origins, for easier reading I will categorized vegetables by their edible parts. Flower Fruit Green Leafy Seed Roots Tubers Steam Vegetables
Flowering Vegetables Flowering Vegetables = include broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels spouts, and cabbage. Broccoli = when cooking make sure that the stems and florets are cut about the same size. Cauliflower = Often cooked by steaming, stir-frying or tempura. Used in crudités Cabbage = used often in coleslaw or stir-fry's. Thick, waxy leaves lay tight together and form a large, round head. Brussels sprouts = look like miniature cabbage, grow on a thick stalk.
Fruit Vegetables Fruit Vegetables = include avocados, cucumbers, eggplants, peppers, squash, and tomatoes. Avocados = have green or black leathery skin, served w/lime or lemon juice to prevent the flesh from turning brown. Eggplant = purple-black, glossy firm vegetables range in size from inches. Babaganoush =Middle Eastern dip Bell or Sweet Peppers = All varieties start out green, but as they ripen their color change (Chili peppers are in same family)
Fruit Vegetable Squash = classified as either winter squash or summer squash (winter squash verities include butternut, acorn, spaghetti, banana, hubbard, and pumpkin – hard shells and large seeds) (Summer squash include yellow crookneck, patty pan, and zucchini – soft skin and small seeds) Cucumbers = range from inches long, made mostly of water, this makes them crisp low in calories and high in taste. Tomatoes = Is a type of berry and grow in hundreds of varieties. The size of a tomato determines how it is used. (lg. green – frying, jumbo reed – stuffed, plan or baked, medium – slicing, overripe – stews, sauces and casseroles)
Green Leafy Vegetables Green Leafy Vegetables = include various types of lettuce, mustard greens, spinach, and Swiss chard. Lettuce = Most common are iceberg, romaine and leaf Iceberg = tightly packed together Romaine/Leaf lettuce = loosely packed mild flavor Mustard greens = strong, butter flavor, dark green and served raw in salads or lightly sautéed Spinach = high nutrient content and tart flavor Swiss Chard = actually a type of beet that does not have a root, it has a rich, tart flavor
Seed Vegetables Seed Vegetables = include corn, peas, and beans (most flavorful and sweet when eaten young, they can lose their sweetness as soon as one day after being harvested) Sweet Corn = served very soon after being picked, otherwise natural sugars will begin to turn to starch (flavors: white, yellow and bicolor varieties) Peas = most common garden peas, sweet delicate flavor Beans = green beans, yellow wax beans, and French haircot verts Lima beans/fava = these beans are shelled first, they are larger and more firm than green beans
Root and Tuber Vegetables Root Vegetables = rich in sugars, starches, vitamins, and minerals. A single root extends into the ground and provides nutrients to the part of the vegetables above ground (common root vegetables are carrots, beets, radishes, turnips, and onions) Carrots = large amount of carotene(vit.A) Beets = originally grown for their tops, no their roots Radishes = small, round roots, available in many different colors Turnips = hot, peppery flavor, larger than radish and usually have a rose-colored skin and bright white flesh
Root and Tuber Vegetables Onions = all varieties of onions have a pungent flavor and aroma Common/bulb onions – white, yellow or red, best when sliced or chopped Pear onions – best for boiling, cooking w/roast Green onion/scallions – are actually common onions, they are pulled before they are mature Shallots – shaped like small bulb onions, they separate into small cloves when broken apart Leeks – resemble large green onions, they have the mildest flavor in the onion family
Root and Tuber Vegetables Potatoes = world’s most popular vegetables (served daily in over 60% of households in the U.S.) The most common potatoes are the long russets, long white, round russet, round white, and round red. Sweet potato = has darker flesh, yellow/orange flesh, high sugar content (good source of vit. A, C, Iron and thiamin) Yams = compared to sweet potato, however the yam is not as sweet as the sweet potato. Its flesh ranges in color, from deep red to creamy white.
Steam Vegetables Steam Vegetables = include asparagus, celery, artichokes and mushrooms. Asparagus = originates from Europe, available fresh, canned and frozen Celery = green, leafy stalks. Very sturdy, use as apt. Artichoke = these are immature flowers of a thistle plant. Young artichokes can be cooked whole; mature artichokes have a fuzzy center, which needs to be removed. Artichoke hearts are available fresh and canned. Mushrooms = in the family of fungi = which are large group of plants ranging from single-celled organisms to giant mushrooms. Flavor ranges, available fresh, frozen, canned or dehydrated.
Questions??? 1.Identify the following vegetables to their appropriate categories (ex steam, flower etc.) EggplantCornMushroom Sweet potatoOnionMustard green BroccoliCarrotSpinach Brussels sproutsAsparagusYam 2.How are squash usually classified? Give examples 3.How are roots and tubers alike? How are they different? Give some examples of each. 4.Using a recipe from your family, explain how one of the vegetables discussed in this chapter is used?
Milk, Yogurt, and Cheese List a few examples of dairy products that are plentiful in your area. Discuss how many servings a day children should eat and when they might have them. Together, research and discuss the health benefits of dairy products. Encourage children to list foods that they like from this food group.
Bread and Pasta Group List a few examples of bread and pasta products that are plentiful in your area. Discuss how many servings a day children should eat and when they might have them. Together, research and discuss the health benefits of bread and pasta. Encourage children to list foods that they like from this food group.
Fats, Oils, and Sweets List examples of fats, oils, and sweets. Discuss how many daily servings at most children should eat. Together, research and discuss the risks associated with eating too much fat and too many sweets. Solicit class feedback on this food group.
Snacks List a few examples of snacks. Discuss how many snacks a day children should eat. Solicit class feedback on healthy snacks.
Eat Well and Stay Healthy! Encourage children to keep a daily food diary for a week, and to eat their favorite foods in each group to meet the daily requirements. Discuss their findings at the end of the week. How might each child eat more healthfully?
Conclusion Summarize the health benefits of each food group. Encourage children to do research on any new finding about food and health. Encourage children to continue keeping a food diary. Ask your school nurse or doctor to visit the class to share facts about food and health on an ongoing basis.