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Kingdom Fungi Chapter 21. LEARNING OBJECTIVE 1 Describe the distinguishing characteristics of the kingdom Fungi Describe the distinguishing characteristics.

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Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Fungi Chapter 21. LEARNING OBJECTIVE 1 Describe the distinguishing characteristics of the kingdom Fungi Describe the distinguishing characteristics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kingdom Fungi Chapter 21

2 LEARNING OBJECTIVE 1 Describe the distinguishing characteristics of the kingdom Fungi Describe the distinguishing characteristics of the kingdom Fungi

3 Fungi Eukaryotes that lack chlorophyll and are heterotrophic Eukaryotes that lack chlorophyll and are heterotrophic Absorb predigested food through the cell wall and plasma membrane Absorb predigested food through the cell wall and plasma membrane

4 WAYS FUNGI AFFECTS LIVING THINGS Cause food spoilage Cause food spoilage Make food products better Make food products better Provides a food source Provides a food source Provide medicine Provide medicine Cause plant disease Cause plant disease Damage property Damage property Cause disease Cause disease

5 Examples of foods made possible by fungi Yeast Beer and Wine Beer and Wine Bread BreadMushrooms White button, crimini,portabella White button, crimini,portabella Truffles, chanterelles Truffles, chanterellesMycoprotein (food additive like tofu) Cheese Rennin, blue cheese Soy sauce Tempeh Citric acid (soft drinks)

6 Evolutionary History of Fungi Fungi appeared around 1.5 billion years ago. Fungi appeared around 1.5 billion years ago. Earliest fungi were aquatic. Earliest fungi were aquatic. Fungi are more closely related to animals than plants. Fungi are more closely related to animals than plants. Fungi probably evolved from a flagellated protist. Fungi probably evolved from a flagellated protist.

7 KEY TERMS CHITIN CHITIN A nitrogen-containing polysaccharide that forms cell walls of many fungi A nitrogen-containing polysaccharide that forms cell walls of many fungi HYPHA HYPHA One of the threadlike filaments composing the mycelium of a fungus One of the threadlike filaments composing the mycelium of a fungus

8 KEY TERMS MYCELIUM MYCELIUM Vegetative (nonreproductive) body of most fungi, consisting of a branched network of hyphae Vegetative (nonreproductive) body of most fungi, consisting of a branched network of hyphae Other fungi (yeasts) are unicellular Other fungi (yeasts) are unicellular

9 Filamentous Fungi

10 Hyphae (a) A fungal mycelium growing on agar in a culture dish. In nature, fungal mycelia are rarely so symmetrical. (b) Electron micrograph of a mycelium. (c) A hypha divided into cells by septa; each cell is monokaryotic. In some fungi the septa are perforated (as shown). (d) A septate hypha in which each cell is dikaryotic (has two nuclei). (e) A coenocytic hypha. (e) (d) (c) Fig. 21-1, p. 407

11 LEARNING OBJECTIVE 2 Explain the fate of a fungal spore that lands on an appropriate food source Explain the fate of a fungal spore that lands on an appropriate food source

12 KEY TERMS SPORE SPORE A reproductive cell that gives rise to individual offspring in fungi and certain other organisms A reproductive cell that gives rise to individual offspring in fungi and certain other organisms

13 Spores Fungi reproduce by spores Fungi reproduce by spores May be produced sexually or asexually May be produced sexually or asexually When a fungal spore comes into contact with an appropriate food source, the spore germinates and begins to grow a mycelium When a fungal spore comes into contact with an appropriate food source, the spore germinates and begins to grow a mycelium

14 Germination: Spore to Mycelium

15 Mycelium Hypha Spore Fig. 21-2, p. 407

16 LEARNING OBJECTIVE 3 List distinguishing characteristics and give examples of each of the following fungal groups: chytridiomycetes, zygomycetes, glomeromycetes, ascomycetes, and basidiomycetes List distinguishing characteristics and give examples of each of the following fungal groups: chytridiomycetes, zygomycetes, glomeromycetes, ascomycetes, and basidiomycetes

17 Major Phyla of Fungi

18 Common flagellated ancestor Loss of flagellum Evolution of dikaryotic stage Evolution of basidiospores Evolution of ascospores Chytrids Zygomycetes Glomeromycetes Ascomycetes Basidiomycetes Fig. 21-3, p. 408

19 KEY TERMS CHYTRID (chytridiomycetes) CHYTRID (chytridiomycetes) A fungus characterized by production of flagellated cells at some stage in its life history A fungus characterized by production of flagellated cells at some stage in its life history A parasitic chytrid is partly responsible for declining amphibian populations A parasitic chytrid is partly responsible for declining amphibian populations

20 A Chytrid

21 KEY TERMS ZYGOMYCETE ZYGOMYCETE A fungus characterized by production of nonmotile, asexual spores and sexual zygospores A fungus characterized by production of nonmotile, asexual spores and sexual zygospores Black bread mold is a zygomycete Black bread mold is a zygomycete

22 A Zygomycete

23 Life Cycle: Black Bread Mold

24 In asexual reproduction, certain hyphae form sporangia in which clusters of black, asexual, haploid spores develop. When released, they give rise to new hyphae. Hyphae of (+) and (-) mating types grow toward one another. When (+) and (-) hyphae meet, they form gametangia. Plasmogamy Plasmogamy occurs as gametangia fuse. Karyogamy occurs with nuclei fusing to form diploid zygote. Karyogamy Mature zygospore within zygosporangium DIPLOID (2n) STAGE SEXUAL REPRODUCTION ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION (by spores) Haploid (n) Spore germinates Spores germinate and produce haploid mycelia. Sporangium containing spores produced by mitosis Germination of zygospore Meiosis Zygospore develops from zygote; it is encased by thick-walled, black zygosporangium. Meiosis occurs and zygospore germinates; hypha develops sporangium at its tip. HAPLOID (n) STAGE Gametangia + - Sporangia Spores 2 1a b Fig. 21-6, p. 410

25 Microsporidium Infection

26 Spore of microsporidium has coiled polar tube. Spore ejects its polar tube and penetrates host cell. Infective cytoplasm is injected into host cell. Microsporidian cell Polar tube Host cell 213 Fig. 21-7, p. 411

27 Host cell 2. Spore ejects its polar tube and penetrates host cell. 3. Infective cytoplasm is injected into host cell. Microsporidian cell Polar tube 1. Spore of microsporidium has coiled polar tube. Stepped Art Fig. 21-7, p. 411

28 CLICK TO PLAY Animation: Zygomycete Life Cycle

29 KEY TERMS GLOMEROMYCETE GLOMEROMYCETE A fungus that forms a distinctive branching form (arbuscular mycorrhizae) of endomycorrhizae with roots of most trees and herbaceous plants A fungus that forms a distinctive branching form (arbuscular mycorrhizae) of endomycorrhizae with roots of most trees and herbaceous plants

30 Glomeromycetes

31 Cells of root cortex Root epidermis Vesicle Arbuscule Cortex cell Hyphae of fungus Spore Root hair Soil Fig. 21-8, p. 412

32 KEY TERMS ASCOMYCETE ASCOMYCETE A fungus characterized by production of nonmotile, asexual conidia and sexual ascospores A fungus characterized by production of nonmotile, asexual conidia and sexual ascospores Ascomycetes include yeasts, cup fungi, morels, truffles, pink and green molds Ascomycetes include yeasts, cup fungi, morels, truffles, pink and green molds

33 Conidia

34 Conidia Fig. 21-9, p. 412

35 Life Cycle: Ascomycetes

36 Karyogamy DIPLOID (2n) STAGE SEXUAL REPRODUCTION ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION (by spores) Meiosis HAPLOID (n) STAGE Germinating conidium Karyogamy occurs in each ascus. Two haploid nuclei fuse, forming a diploid zygote nucleus. Mycelium Ascocarp Hyphae form an ascocarp. Developing ascus with n + n nuclei DIKARYOTIC STAGE (n + n) Dikaryotic hyphae form and produce asci. Plasmogamy occurs as hyphae of the two mating types fuse and nuclei are exchanged. Nuclei migrate. Haploid mycelia of opposite mating types both produce coenocytic sexual hyphae. Conidia In asexual reproduction, hyphae produce haploid conidia. Conidiophore (–) mating type Meiosis occurs, forming four haploid nuclei. First meiotic division Nuclei fuse Second meiotic division Mitosis produces eight haploid nuclei. Mature ascus has eight haploid ascospores. Each nucleus becomes incorporated into an ascospore. When released, ascospores germinate and form new haploid mycelia. (–) mating type Zygote Haploid (n) Plasmogamy Fig , p. 414

37 Sexual Reproduction in Ascomycetes

38 Penicillium. The mold Penicillium produces penicillin, which inhibits the growth of Gram-positive bacteria.

39 Penicillium WWI, bacterial infections killed more soldiers than bullets did directly Dr. Fleming working at St. Mary’s Hospital in London noticed that mold growing on staph bacterial culture plates had killed the pathogen zone of dead bacteria

40 Penicillin kills bacteria by interfering with their ability to synthesize cell wall. In this sequence, Escherichia coli were incubated in penicillin for 30 minutes. The bacteria lengthen, but cannot divide. Eventually the weak cell wall ruptures (last panel).

41 Animations Mode of action of Pennicillin: Mode of action of Pennicillin: brary/files/ccImages/Articleimages/Spe ncer/spencer_cellwall.html brary/files/ccImages/Articleimages/Spe ncer/spencer_cellwall.html brary/files/ccImages/Articleimages/Spe ncer/spencer_cellwall.html brary/files/ccImages/Articleimages/Spe ncer/spencer_cellwall.html Development of Antibiotic resistance: Development of Antibiotic resistance: ocus/sif_antibiotics.html ocus/sif_antibiotics.html

42 KEY TERMS BASIDIOMYCETE BASIDIOMYCETE A fungus characterized by production of sexual basidiospores A fungus characterized by production of sexual basidiospores Basidiomycetes include mushrooms, puffballs, rusts, smuts Basidiomycetes include mushrooms, puffballs, rusts, smuts

43 Basidiomycete Fruiting Bodies

44

45 Sexual Reproduction in Basidiomycetes

46 (a) Compacted hyphae form the basidiocarp commonly called a mushroom. Numerous basidia are borne on the gills. Mycelium Base Stalk Button stage Gills Fruiting body (Basidiocarp) Cap (b) Each basidium produces four basidiospores, which are attached to the basidium. Basidium Basidiospore Gill, bearing basidia Fig , p. 417

47 Life Cycle: Basidiomycetes

48 Basidia form along gills of basidiocarps. In each basidium karyogamy occurs, producing a zygote nucleus. Meoisis occurs, producing four haploid nuclei that become basidiospores. Basidiocarps periodically develop from secondary mycelium. Fast-growing secondary mycelium is produced, composed of dikaryotic (n + n) hyphae. Plasmogamy occurs with the fusion of two (n) hyphae of different mating types. Basidiospores germinate and form primary mycelia. Basidiospores released Basidiospores forming HAPLOID (n) STAGE Second meiotic division DIPLOID (2n) STAGE Zygote nucleus Gills First meiotic division Basidiocarp Secondary mycelium DIKARYOTIC STAGE (n + n) Karyogamy Meiosis Plasmogamy Fig , p. 418

49 CLICK TO PLAY Animation: Club Fungus Life Cycle

50 LEARNING OBJECTIVE 4 Explain the ecological significance of fungi as decomposers Explain the ecological significance of fungi as decomposers

51 Decomposers Most fungi are decomposers Most fungi are decomposers Break down organic compounds in dead organisms, leaves, garbage, and wastes into simpler materials that can be recycled Break down organic compounds in dead organisms, leaves, garbage, and wastes into simpler materials that can be recycled Without continuous decomposition Without continuous decomposition Essential minerals would be unavailable for use by new generations of organisms Essential minerals would be unavailable for use by new generations of organisms Life would cease Life would cease

52 LEARNING OBJECTIVE 5 Describe the important ecological role of mycorrhizae Describe the important ecological role of mycorrhizae

53 Mycorrhizae Mutualistic relationships between fungi and roots of plants Mutualistic relationships between fungi and roots of plants Fungus supplies minerals to plant Fungus supplies minerals to plant Plant secretes organic compounds needed by fungus Plant secretes organic compounds needed by fungus

54 KEY TERMS ENDOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ENDOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI Fungi that form mycorrhizae that extend into plant roots Fungi that form mycorrhizae that extend into plant roots ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI Fungi that form mycorrhizae consisting of a dense sheath over the root’s surface Fungi that form mycorrhizae consisting of a dense sheath over the root’s surface

55 Experiment: Mycorrhizae

56 Mycorrhizae “myco” = fungus and “rhiza” = root “myco” = fungus and “rhiza” = root Symbiotic association between plant roots and fungi Symbiotic association between plant roots and fungi Several different types of association (defined by structure of fungus:plant interface) Several different types of association (defined by structure of fungus:plant interface)

57 Mycorrhizae Endomycorrhizae: Endomycorrhizae: Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (VAM, AM). Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (VAM, AM). Most common type of mycorrhizae (textbook: ~240,000 plant species, ~6000 fungal species; Trappe, 1987: ~2/3 of all plant species). Most common type of mycorrhizae (textbook: ~240,000 plant species, ~6000 fungal species; Trappe, 1987: ~2/3 of all plant species). Fungi = Zygomycetes, many kinds of plants (bryophytes, ferns, gymnosperms, angiosperms) Important step in evolution of land plants? Fungi = Zygomycetes, many kinds of plants (bryophytes, ferns, gymnosperms, angiosperms) Important step in evolution of land plants? VAM Fungi haven’t been cultured, can’t degrade complex organic matter, rely on simple C compounds from plants. Survive as chlamydospores in soil untilinfection. Plants can usually live without association, but not as well. VAM Fungi haven’t been cultured, can’t degrade complex organic matter, rely on simple C compounds from plants. Survive as chlamydospores in soil untilinfection. Plants can usually live without association, but not as well. Important for P uptake, recently shown to transfer organic N to plant. Important for P uptake, recently shown to transfer organic N to plant. Vesicles: survival structures within plant. Fungus can grow along the inside of the root as root grows. Vesicles: survival structures within plant. Fungus can grow along the inside of the root as root grows. Arbuscules: highly branched hyphae - transfer nutrients when arbuscules are digested by plant. Arbuscules: highly branched hyphae - transfer nutrients when arbuscules are digested by plant.

58 Almost ALL plant species depend on mycorrhizae to some extent Types of mycorrhizae Plant partners Vesicular-arbuscular (VAM) ~150 species of fungi Nearly all terrestrial plants (200,000 species including grasses, crops, flowering plants, and flowering trees not listed below) Ectomycorrhizae ~5,000-10,000 species of fungi Conifer trees, oaks, birches, beeches, Eucalyptus) (~2000 species of trees)

59 Effect of mycorrhizal symbiosis (with a fungus) on pine seedlings

60 LEARNING OBJECTIVE 6 Characterize the unique nature of a lichen Characterize the unique nature of a lichen

61 KEY TERMS LICHEN LICHEN A compound organism consisting of a symbiotic fungus and an alga or cyanobacterium A compound organism consisting of a symbiotic fungus and an alga or cyanobacterium Lichens have three main growth forms: crustose, foliose, and fruticose Lichens have three main growth forms: crustose, foliose, and fruticose

62 Lichens

63 (a)This cross section of a typical lichen shows distinct layers. The soredium, an asexual reproductive structure, consists of clusters of algal or cyanobacterial cells enclosed by fungal hyphae. Rock or other surface to which lichen is attached Fruticose lichen (Ramalina) (b) Lichens vary in color, shape, and overall appearance. Three growth forms–crustose, foliose, and fruticose–are shown on a maple branch in Washington State. Foliose lichen (Parmelia) Crustose lichens (Bacidia, Lecanora) Bottom layer (fungal hyphae) Loosely woven hyphae Fungal hyphae interwoven with photosynthetic organism Surface layer (fungal hyphae) Soredia Fig , p. 420

64 Recap of mycorrhizal benefits Greater plant productivity (larger profits in the timber, fiber industries) Greater reproductive success for plants (higher yields for agriculture) Greater ecosystem stability Left: No mycorrhizal fungi Right: With mycorrhizal fungi

65 Economic Impact Foods: Foods: Mushrooms, morels, truffles Mushrooms, morels, truffles Food production: Food production: Beer, wine, bread, cheeses, soy sauce Beer, wine, bread, cheeses, soy sauce Production of industrial chemicals: Production of industrial chemicals: Citric acid Citric acid

66 LEARNING OBJECTIVE 7 Summarize some of the ways that fungi impact humans economically Summarize some of the ways that fungi impact humans economically

67 Economic Impact Foods: Foods: Mushrooms, morels, truffles Mushrooms, morels, truffles Food production: Food production: Beer, wine, bread, cheeses, soy sauce Beer, wine, bread, cheeses, soy sauce Production of industrial chemicals: Production of industrial chemicals: Citric acid Citric acid

68 Fungal Food Products

69 Edible Ascomycetes

70 LEARNING OBJECTIVE 8 Summarize the importance of fungi to biology and medicine Summarize the importance of fungi to biology and medicine

71 Biology and Medicine 1 Production of medications: Production of medications: Penicillin and other antibiotics Penicillin and other antibiotics Cause important plant diseases: Cause important plant diseases: Wheat rust, Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight Wheat rust, Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight

72 Biology and Medicine 2 Opportunistic pathogens in humans: Opportunistic pathogens in humans: Ringworm, athlete’s foot, candidiasis, histoplasmosis Ringworm, athlete’s foot, candidiasis, histoplasmosis Produce mycotoxins: Produce mycotoxins: Aflatoxins cause liver damage and cancer Aflatoxins cause liver damage and cancer

73 The Destroying Angel

74 Ergot

75 Ergot Fig , p. 423

76 Fungal Parasite

77 Haustoria Air space Stoma Epidermis Leaf Hypha Spore Fig , p. 424

78 Fungal Plant Pathogens


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