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Ecology and evolution Topic 5.1 Communities and ecosystems.

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1 Ecology and evolution Topic 5.1 Communities and ecosystems

2 Some useful definitions:  Species – A group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.  Eg. a lionor a tiger

3 But……… A lion and a tiger can reproduce together and produce a Liger No, because the liger is sterile. Is the liger a new species? Are lions and Tigers the same species?

4 Habitat – The environment where a species normally lives or the location of a living organism. Homework: Find out: What is a niche? How is it different from a habitat?

5 Population – a group of organisms of the same species who live in the same area at the same time. What’s missing from this graph?.........It has area…… has time

6 Community – a group of populations living and interacting with each other in an area.

7 Ecosystem – A community and its abiotic (non-living) environment

8 Ecology – The study of the relationships between living organisms and their relationships with the environment Living (biotic) things that affect Ecosystems Non-living (a-biotic) factors that effect Ecosystems

9 Autotroph- An organism that synthesises its organic molecules from simple inorganic substances. A plant yesterday. Autotrophic bacteria

10 Heterotroph – an organism that obtains organic molecules from other organisms.

11 Saprotroph – an organism that lives on or in non- living matter, secreting digestive enzymes into it and absorbing the products of digestion.

12 What do you call a mushroom that buys you drinks? A Fungi to be with!

13 Detritivore – an organism that ingests non-living organic material. A woodlouse

14 Food chains Producer Primary consumer Secondary consumer Tertiary consumer The arrows represent the flow of energy from eaten to eater!

15 Make food chains with the following organisms: A)  Shark  Minnow  Zooplankton  Phytoplankton  Tuna B) Lion Gazelle Grass Tick Ox-pecker (bird that eats ticks) What is the initial energy source for both chains? Make sure the arrows go in the right direction.

16 Food webs What is the trophic level of the: Caterpillar? Robin? Owl? Higher Level question: What will happen to the resilience of a food web if you increase the complexity? Primary consumer 2 o, 3 o, and 4 o Consumer

17 Homework  Page 176, Question 5  Using Clip art make a food web that contains at least 10 named organisms (common names are acceptable but must be more than “big fish” or “tree”!)

18 Bibliography  Evolution of man picture  Lion Picture  Tiger picture  Liger picture  Habitat picture  Population graph 202050.JPG 202050.JPG 202050.JPG  Community picture  Ecosystem picture  Tree Hugger  Autotrophic bacteria  A plant yesterday  T.rex picture  Mushroom picture  Woodlice picture _male_front_2_(aka).jpg/250px-Porcellio_scaber_-_male_front_2_(aka).jpg _male_front_2_(aka).jpg/250px-Porcellio_scaber_-_male_front_2_(aka).jpg _male_front_2_(aka).jpg/250px-Porcellio_scaber_-_male_front_2_(aka).jpg  Food chain:       Food web

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