Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

37-1 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Chapter 37: Fungi.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "37-1 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Chapter 37: Fungi."— Presentation transcript:

1 37-1 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Chapter 37: Fungi

2 37-2 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Kingdom Fungi Yeasts, truffles, mushrooms, rusts, moulds Characteristics –eukaryotic –heterotrophic –filamentous –chitin in cell walls

3 37-3 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Classification Phyla with sexual and asexual reproduction –Chytridiomycota –Zygomycota –Ascomycota –Basidiomycota Phylum with asexual reproduction only –Deuteromycota Lichens –Mycophycota (fungus + photosynthetic organism)

4 37-4 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Fig. 37.2: Cladogram of fungi

5 37-5 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Relatives of animals Closest relatives of kingdom Animalia –both groups share choanoflagellate ancestor Fungi have –chitin in cell walls –haploid nuclei in non-sexual (vegetative) cells Animals have –no chitin in cell membranes –diploid nuclei in non-sexual (somatic) cells

6 37-6 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Fungal nuclei Cells haploid and multinucleate Multinucleate vegetative cells –homokaryon (nuclei identical) –heterokaryon (nuclei different)  fusion of hyphae  mutation during mitosis Nuclear fusion delayed –sometimes never occurs –cell contains two haploid nuclei  dikaryon

7 37-7 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Structure Filamentous hyphae (sing. hypha) –fine tubes –cell wall enclosing cytoplasm and organelles –elongate and branch at tips where wall is still elastic –septa usually incomplete Mycelium (body) of fungus –mass of hyphae

8 37-8 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Hyphae Structure, reproduction and feeding Rhizomorphs –rope-like tangles of hyphae (example: Armillaria) Sclerotia –resistant resting bodies Spores produced on –sporangiophore or conidiophore –stroma (hyphal mat) –fruiting body of meshed hyphae (mushroom, toadstool) (cont.)

9 37-9 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Hyphae (cont.) Structure, reproduction and feeding Saprophytic fungi –rhizoids anchor hyphae and absorb nutrients Parasitic fungi –appressoria adhere to and then dissolve host cell wall –haustoria absorb nutrients from host cells

10 37-10 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Reproduction Reproduce by spores –one or more cells in a spore Changes in environmental conditions trigger sporulation –spore formation and release Sexual spores –one type in each species Asexual spores –up to four types in each species

11 37-11 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Nutrition Heterotrophic –use glucose as source of carbon Saprophytic –decomposers –release enzymes onto substrate –absorb nutrients Parasitic –highly specialised

12 37-12 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Environmental conditions Xerotolerant –break down storage compounds or cellulose to produce water –proteins (hydrophobins) prevent desiccation Thermophilic species –grow at 30 0 –50 0 C Psychrophilic species –grow at - 5 0 –5 0 C

13 37-13 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Chytridiomycota Chytrids, water moulds Saprophytes, some pathogens –plants, frogs Characteristics –single cell or chains of cells –anucleate root-like rhizoids or multinucleate hyphae –asexual motile zoospores –sexual gametes

14 37-14 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Fig. 37.14: Life cycle of a chytrid Copyright © J W Deacon 1979, Modern Mycology, 3rd edn, Blackwell Science

15 37-15 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Zygomycota Zygomycetes, moulds, mycorrhizae Characteristics –multinucleate haploid hyphae –asexual sporangiospores –sexual zygospores

16 37-16 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Fig. 37.15: Life cycle of Zygomycota 37.15a copyright © Professor David Guest, University of Melbourne; 37.15b copyright © Gilbert Bompeix, Laboratoire Biochimie et Pathologie Végétale, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris; 37.15c copyright © Gilbert Bompeix, Laboratoire Biochimie et Pathologie Végétale, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris; 37.15d copyright © Grant Heilman Photography, Inc. www.grantheilman.com

17 37-17 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Ascomycota Ascomycetes, yeasts –> 60000 species Characteristics –heterokaryon hyphae –pored septa –asexual conidia –sexual ascospores

18 37-18 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Fig. 37.16: Life cycle of Ascomycota 37.16b copyright © C O’Brien; 37.16c,d copyright © Gilbert Bompeix, Laboratoire Biochimie et Pathologie Végétale, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris

19 37-19 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Basidiomycota Mushrooms, toadstools, rusts, smuts –> 25 000 described species Characteristics –dikaryon hyphae –septa with complex pores and clamp connections –asexual conidia –sexual basidiospores

20 37-20 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Fig. 37.17: Life cycle of Basidiomycota 37.17 copyright © Visuals Unlimited

21 37-21 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Deuteromycota Fungi imperfecti –c. 25 000 species Polyphyletic group –includes species from unrelated evolutionary lineages Characteristics –asexual reproduction only (anamorph) –classified informally using form of conidiospores –includes species for which the sexual form (teleomorph) is still unknown

22 37-22 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Mutualistic relationships Fungi form interdependent relationships with other organisms –usually photosynthetic organisms  cyanobacteria  alga  land plants Lichens Mycorrhizae

23 37-23 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Lichens Classified as phylum Mycophycota –ecological group –c. 18 000 species Fungus + photosynthetic organism –ascomycete (rarely basidiomycete) –cyanobacterium or green alga Partnership –fungus provides water and minerals –photosynthetic organism provides sugars

24 37-24 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Lichen reproduction Fragmentation Soredia –algal cells in fungal hyphae –reproduce independently –alga or cyanobacterium reproduces asexually –fungus reproduces sexually –if conditions are right, new lichen forms

25 37-25 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Mycorrhizae Provide nutrients to host plants –enable plants to grow in low-nutrient soils Arbuscular mycorrhizae –zygomycetes infecting c. 85 per cent land plant species Ectomycorrhizae –basidiomycetes (+ some others) infecting c. 15 per cent land plant species Orchid mycorrhizae Epacrid mycorrhizae

26 37-26 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Fig. 37.22: Ectomycorrhizae (a) A network of ectomycorrhizal hyphae under the leaf litter on a forest floor (b) An ectomycorrhizal plant root has a more stunted appearance than uninfected roots (cont.)

27 37-27 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Fig. 37.22: Ectomycorrhizae (cont.) (c) Surface view of the network of fungal hyphae around a plant root (d) Transverse section of a mycorrhizal root showing the Hartig net Copyright © Biological Photo Service

28 37-28 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Ectomycorrhizae Specific associations Fungus encloses plant root in mycelium sheath Net of mycelium between epidermal cells of root –Hartig net –increased surface area for nutrient transfer

29 37-29 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Fungi and humans Fungi have a significant impact on humans –food and alcohol  yeast, mushrooms, cheeses –toxins and medicinal drugs  ergots –diseases of animals  pathogenic fungi, allergens –diseases of plants  dieback –biological control of weeds  rusts –industrial mycology  food acids, antibiotics


Download ppt "37-1 Copyright  2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Biology: An Australian focus 3e by Knox, Ladiges, Evans and Saint Chapter 37: Fungi."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google