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Home Food Preservation Made Easy. 2 Prepared by: Kimberly Baker, MS, RD, LD Food Safety and Nutrition Agent Clemson Extension Service Greenville County.

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Presentation on theme: "Home Food Preservation Made Easy. 2 Prepared by: Kimberly Baker, MS, RD, LD Food Safety and Nutrition Agent Clemson Extension Service Greenville County."— Presentation transcript:

1 Home Food Preservation Made Easy

2 2 Prepared by: Kimberly Baker, MS, RD, LD Food Safety and Nutrition Agent Clemson Extension Service Greenville County

3 3 Acknowledgements  Ms. Pam, Schmutz, Food Safety Specialist  1-888-656-9988  Clemson Extension Home & Garden Information Center   Source for over 150 food preservation/food safety publications

4 Equipment4 Canning Equipment Proper equipment is essential to a safe product.

5 Equipment 5 Canning Jars  Check jars for nicks, cracks, and rough edges.  Wash in soapy water, rinse well, and keep hot.  If food is processed for less than 10 minutes, need to be sterilized.  Do not use single-use jars, such as mayonnaise and tomato sauce jars, to process food at home.

6 Equipment 6 Canning Lids  Use two-piece lids.  Flat lid cannot be reused but the ring band can.  Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for treating them.

7 Canning Tools  Jar Funnel  Jar Lifter  Magnetic Lid Wand  Bubble Freer Equipment 7

8 Preparing and Packing8 Preparing and Packing Food

9 Preparing and Packing 9 Raw Pack  For foods that lose shape when cooked.  Place raw food directly in jars. Boiling hot liquid is then poured over the food.  Pack firmly, don’t crush.  Add jars carefully to warm canner to avoid breakage from heat shock.  Follow a reliable recipe.

10 Preparing and Packing 10 Hot Pack  Preferred method for most foods.  Food is cooked in liquid before packing. Cooking liquid is then poured over food in jar.  Fewer jars needed.  Less floating of food and better color and flavor.  Foods easier to pack.  Kills some microorganisms.

11 Preparing and Packing 11 Headspace  Space in the jar between the inside of the lid and the top of the food or its liquid.  Check canning directions to determine the correct headspace for each food.  Usually:  1/4” for jellies  1/2” for high-acid foods, such as fruits, tomatoes, and pickles  1” to 1-1/4” for low-acid foods

12 Preparing and Packing 12 Problems with Headspace Too little:  Food may bubble out during processing.  Deposit on rim may prevent proper sealing. Too much:  Food at the top is likely to discolor.  Jar may not seal properly, because processing time not long enough to drive all the air from inside the jar.

13 Preparing and Packing 13 Before Sealing Jars  Remove air bubbles.  Re-adjust headspace if necessary.  Wipe jar rims.  Adjust two-piece lids, fingertip-tight.

14 14 Canning Basics

15 Basics of Canning 15 Basics of Canning  Food is placed in a jar and heated to a temperature that destroys targeted microorganisms.  Heat also inactivates enzymes that cause spoilage.  Air is driven from the jar during heating. As the jar cools a vacuum seal is formed.

16 Basics of Canning 16 High Acid Foods (pH <4.6)  All fruits, except for:  figs  tomatoes, and  melons  Fermented pickles, such as sauerkraut  Acidified foods, such as pickles

17 Basics of Canning 17 Low-acid Food (pH >4.6)  All vegetables, except rhubarb  Meats  Poultry  Seafood  Soups  Mixed canned foods (low-acid + high-acid)

18 Basics of Canning 18 Two Methods of Canning Boiling Water Canning -- used for high-acid foods Pressure Canning -- used for low-acid foods (and some high-acid foods)

19 Basics of Canning 19 Why Two Ways to Can?  Yeast, molds, and most bacteria are destroyed at boiling temperatures -- 212ºF at sea level.  C. botulinum forms spores that require higher temperatures for destruction in a reasonable period of time -- usually 240ºF or above at sea level.

20 Basics of Canning 20 Botulism and Growth To grow, the spores need:  oxygen-free environment  low-acid food  temperature between 40ºF to 120ºF  relatively high moisture

21 Basics of Canning 21 Botulism and Growth Conditions for C. botulinum to grow can be found in:  Home canned foods  Smoked fish and sausage  Foil-wrapped baked potatoes  Packaged mushrooms  Pot pies

22 Basics of Canning 22 Ways to Prevent Botulism  Test pressure canner dial gauge for accuracy each year before use.  Correctly operate canner.  Check canned food carefully before use.  If toxin is suspected, detoxify food before discarding. The toxin is destroyed by boiling even though the spores are not.

23 Basics of Canning 23 Unsafe Canning Methods  Open Kettle  Oven Canning  Dishwasher  Addition of Aspirin  Steam Canners  Microwave Oven Canners

24 Boiling Water Bath24 Boiling Water Bath Used for high-acid foods and acidified foods

25 Basics of Canning 25 Boiling Water Bath  Have water simmering or hot in canner, high enough to cover jars (about six inches).  Hot packed jars = simmering water  Raw packed jars = warm to hot water  Wipe rim of jars and adjust lids.  Lower jars slowly into canner.

26 Boiling Water Bath 26 Using a Boiling Water Bath  Place jars on rack in canner.  Add more hot water if necessary, once jars are in canner. (Don’t pour hot water directly onto raw- packed jars).  Count processing time when water returns to a boil.  Remove jars to a padded surface.  Cool away from drafts, 12 to 24 hours.

27 Pressure Canning27 Pressure Canning Used for low-acid foods

28 Presssure Canning 28 Inspect Your Pressure Canner  Some parts might need assembling -- see manufacturer’s directions.  Become familiar with parts and their functions.  Clean to remove oils.  Lightly coat the exposed gasket and lugs on the canner bottom with cooking oil.  Before each use be sure vent pipes are clear and open.

29 Pressure Canning 29 Using a Pressure Canner  Have 2 to 3 inches of water simmering or hot in canner.  Hot packed jars = simmering water  Raw packed jars = warm to hot water  Place jars on rack in canner.  Put lid on canner with weight off or petcock open.

30 Pressure Canning 30  Exhaust canner for 10 minutes.  Close vent or petcock.  Start counting processing times when correct pressure is reached.  Turn off heat at end of processing.  Let pressure drop to 0 psig naturally.

31 Pressure Canning 31  Wait 2 minutes after pressure drops to 0 psig. (For some canners, check that locks in handles are released).  Remove weight or petcock.  Open canner. Watch steam!  Remove jars to padded surface or rack.  Cool jars for 24 hours, undisturbed.  Check that jars have sealed.

32 Pressure Canning 32 Process Food Properly Follow a credible recipe exactly  The following slows heat penetration:  Extra sugar or fat  Oversized food pieces  Added thickeners Process food properly  Heat-up and cool-down times in pressure canners are counted toward sterilizing value of the process. Never rush them.

33 Pressure Canning 33 Importance of Processing Time  Each food and preparation style has its own processing time.  Processing time differs with size of jar.  Too short  Underprocessing  Spoilage or unsafe food  Too long  Overprocessing  Overcooked

34 Pressure Canning 34 What Affects Processing Time  Acidity of the food  Preparation style of the food  Composition of the food - Viscosity - Tightness of pack - Convection vs. conduction transfer of heat - Starches, fats, bones  Initial temperature of food as it is packed into jar  Temperature of processing  Size and shape of jar

35 Pressure Canning 35 Altitude Adjustments  As altitude increases, the temperature decreases at a given pressure.  Dial-gauge processing changes:  0-2000 feet = 11 pounds pressure  2001-4000 feet = 12 pounds pressure  4001-6000 feet = 13 pounds pressure  6001-8000 feet = 14 pounds pressure

36 Pressure Canning 36  Weighted gauge adjustments  0-1000 feet = 10 pounds pressure  At altitudes above 1000 feet, process at 15 pounds pressure.  Boiling water canner adjustments  Generally, the processing time will increase.  Use a credible resource to determine processing time.

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