Presentation on theme: "Cultural service provided by Satoyama landscape"— Presentation transcript:
1Cultural service provided by Satoyama landscape and its role for the conservation of biodiversityTakakazu YUMOTOResearch Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN)
2Satoyama (in Japanese) ： (literally) village mountain =secondary forests nearby human settlements.
3Satoyama： a heavily human-impacted ecosystem which people have been repeatedly used, for harvesting firewood, making charcoals, collecting litter and leaved-branches for manure, obtaining wild plants and fungi for foods for several hundreds years.
4Satoyama: an ecosystem which has been modified by human being for the purpose of obtaining provisioning services in sustainable ways. Satoyama connotes not only the landscape itself, but also traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) for obtaining sustainable ecosystem service.
5Satoyama landscape: a traditional rural landscape in Japan (not only secondary forest, but also including farmlands)Satoyama landscape is characterized by a mosaic of different land uses to obtain different types of ecosystem services. In the Japanese Archipelago, paddy field cultivation began in the small basin, alluvial fan and fluvial terrace, not in large delta. Owing to tiny and fragmented topographic areas, monoculture has not developed until recently.
6As Satoyama provides various materials, people have intentionally kept high diversity of useful plants and animals. Also, as Satoyama is a mosaic of various land use and provides various habitats including ecotone, unintentionally high biodiversity has been kept too.
9第２の危機 The area of secondary forest : 77,000 km2 (it accounts for 21 % of total area of Japan)The area of agricultural use: 80,000 km243% of total area is human-impacted landscape.The human-impacted landscape accounts for49% of hot spots for animals(≥5 spp. of endangered species within 10 X 10 km)And55% of hot spots for plants第２の危機
10(Hyogo Prefecture, 1960)Satoyama landscape was the last habitat for Oriental Stork.
11A mosaic of Satoyama landscape including agricultural lands as well as sacred forests may have nourished Japanese sensibility to nature: to love the landscape as a miniature garden, to love a moderate mixture of nature and artifact, or to love delicate differences and changes in nature. Such a Japanese sensibility is represented as an art of gardening e.g. Katsura Rikyu Imperial Villa, which shows a harmonic combination of nature and artifact.
12Katsura Rikyu Imperial Villa (17th Century): a mosaic of landscapes.
13Katsura Rikyu Imperial Villa (17th Century): paddy field behind is an essential element.
14Shugakuin Rikyu Imperial Villa: built after Katsura Rikyu
15Shugakuin Rikyu Imperial Villa: a mosaic of landscapes including paddy filed
16How people made Satoyama landscape? People used small twigs and leaves for manure.“Illustration Guide to Zenkouji Temple (1849)”
17A village of 100 families（25 acre of paddy fields）needed:1) 250 ~ 300 acre of woodland or grassland for fertilizing their paddy field2) 60 ~ 75 acre of woodland for providing house -keeping fuelTokoro (1980)“Everyday cutting grass”
19Vegetation changes in Kyoto Basin EraSocial changesBefore Heian~8th centuryEvergreen Board-leaved ForestTimber for constructionHeian, Kamakura8th century~Increasing PinesFire woods and manureMuromachi, Edo,Meiji15th century~Bare Hill and Pine ForestReforestation1960’sPine ForestFuel revolutionPine Forest and Evergreen ForestRecession of Pine ForestAfter 1970’sKilled by nematodesPresentEvergreen Board-leaved Forest
24Collecting pine needles in Grand Views of Capital (1520-1530) マツ葉を集める人々（「歴博甲本洛中洛外図」より）Collecting pine needles in Grand Views of Capital ( )
25Pollen analysis at Midoro-ga-ike, Kyoto basin Pine forest in Grand View in Capital (ca. AD1660)Villagers in Midoro bought the right of grass harvest in Kibune (AD1599)Bare hills and sparse pine trees inGrand View in Capital (AD1530／1550)caAD1660+AD1030Foundation of Heian Capital (AD794)AD640Pottery kilns were made(6-7th century)
26Tricoloma matsutake (S. Ito et Imai) Sing. (Matsu-take: pine mushroom) forming mycorhiza with P. densiflora .None has succeed to cultivate it so far.
27Pine mushroom is one of the Japanese delicacies in autumn, the smell is special. Scent of it is very relished in Japan and some other countries in East Asia, but it adds only bad odor for people in other region of the world. Pine mushroom is consumed only in East Asia.
28Enlargement of a evergreen broad-leaved species and decline of pine forests. 1961197519872004知恩院粟田山それにより得られたのがこれらの図です。左から，1961年，1975年，1987年，2004年となっております。また，下には各年のシイの樹冠面積を記しました。1961年には知恩院の裏や清水寺の裏などでかたまった分布を示しており，1975年になると調査地の西側斜面の全域へと分布を拡大しました。その後，大きな分布域の変化は見られませんが，徐々に分布を拡大している様子が見て取れます。また，2004年になると粟田山の東側斜面においてもまとまった分布が見られるようになりました。清水寺清水山6.9ha19.0ha25.6ha32.1ha
29Production and import of pine mushroom 12,222ｔ（1941）’30 ：7,582t’50：4,985tImport:1,554 t (2007)’60：1,707tDomestic: 51 tProduction and import of pine mushroom29
30Tricoloma caligatum from Algeria Stand of Cedrus libani in Algeria3030
31Tricoloma magnivelare from North America Host tree: Pinus spp Tricoloma magnivelare from North America Host tree: Pinus spp., Tsuga spp.3131
32Ecosystem services: benefits to mankind provided by ecosystem (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment) RegulatingClimatePestFloodDetoxificationProvisioningFoodWaterFuelFiberChemicalGenetic resourceCulturalSpiritualRecreationAestheticImaginationEducationCommunalSymbolismSupportingSoil formationNutrient cyclingPrimary productionSustainability
33A mosaic land use for obtaining various ecosystem services can be found not only in Japan, but also in other regions in the world. It is called as Satoyama in Japan, Maeul in Korea, Munoa in Sarawak (Iban), Malaysia and so on. Especially regions with subsistence agriculture based on paddy field have their own TEK to maintain and utilize various plant materials in sustainable ways, which lead to, more or less, the conservation of biodiversity intentionally and unintentionally.
34A message from Satoyama studies is not a nostalgic one “going back to the past”, but a highly contemporary one: TEK in each region and area for obtaining ecosystem services in sustainable way gives us a hint for building new lifestyles of health and sustainability, and for establishing a compatible way of biodiversity conservation and utilization.
35AcknowledgementsMembers of RIHN project “A new cultural and historical exploration into human-nature relations in the Japanese Archipelago”Colleagues in Sub-global Assessment of Satoyama-Satoumi in Japan (Institute of Advance Studies, United Nations University)