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Cultural service provided by Satoyama landscape

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Presentation on theme: "Cultural service provided by Satoyama landscape"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cultural service provided by Satoyama landscape
and its role for the conservation of biodiversity Takakazu YUMOTO Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN)

2 Satoyama (in Japanese) : (literally) village mountain =secondary forests nearby human settlements.

3 Satoyama: a heavily human-impacted ecosystem which people have been repeatedly used, for harvesting firewood, making charcoals, collecting litter and leaved-branches for manure, obtaining wild plants and fungi for foods for several hundreds years.

4 Satoyama: an ecosystem which has been modified by human being for the purpose of obtaining provisioning services in sustainable ways. Satoyama connotes not only the landscape itself, but also traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) for obtaining sustainable ecosystem service.

5 Satoyama landscape: a traditional rural landscape in Japan
(not only secondary forest, but also including farmlands) Satoyama landscape is characterized by a mosaic of different land uses to obtain different types of ecosystem services. In the Japanese Archipelago, paddy field cultivation began in the small basin, alluvial fan and fluvial terrace, not in large delta. Owing to tiny and fragmented topographic areas, monoculture has not developed until recently.

6 As Satoyama provides various materials, people have intentionally kept high diversity of useful plants and animals. Also, as Satoyama is a mosaic of various land use and provides various habitats including ecotone, unintentionally high biodiversity has been kept too.

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9 第2の危機 The area of secondary forest : 77,000 km2
(it accounts for 21 % of total area of Japan) The area of agricultural use: 80,000 km2 43% of total area is human-impacted landscape. The human-impacted landscape accounts for 49% of hot spots for animals (≥5 spp. of endangered species within 10 X 10 km) And 55% of hot spots for plants 第2の危機

10 (Hyogo Prefecture, 1960) Satoyama landscape was the last habitat for Oriental Stork.

11 A mosaic of Satoyama landscape including agricultural lands as well as sacred forests may have nourished Japanese sensibility to nature: to love the landscape as a miniature garden, to love a moderate mixture of nature and artifact, or to love delicate differences and changes in nature. Such a Japanese sensibility is represented as an art of gardening e.g. Katsura Rikyu Imperial Villa, which shows a harmonic combination of nature and artifact.

12 Katsura Rikyu Imperial Villa (17th Century):
a mosaic of landscapes.

13 Katsura Rikyu Imperial Villa (17th Century):
paddy field behind is an essential element.

14 Shugakuin Rikyu Imperial Villa: built after Katsura Rikyu

15 Shugakuin Rikyu Imperial Villa: a mosaic of landscapes
including paddy filed

16 How people made Satoyama landscape?
People used small twigs and leaves for manure. “Illustration Guide to Zenkouji Temple (1849)”

17 A village of 100 families (25 acre of paddy fields)needed: 1) 250 ~ 300 acre of woodland or grassland for fertilizing their paddy field 2) 60 ~ 75 acre of woodland for providing house -keeping fuel Tokoro (1980) “Everyday cutting grass”

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19 Vegetation changes in Kyoto Basin
Era Social changes Before Heian ~8th century Evergreen Board-leaved Forest Timber for construction Heian, Kamakura 8th century~ Increasing Pines Fire woods and manure Muromachi, Edo, Meiji 15th century~ Bare Hill and Pine Forest Reforestation 1960’s Pine Forest Fuel revolution Pine Forest and Evergreen Forest Recession of Pine Forest After 1970’s Killed by nematodes Present Evergreen Board-leaved Forest

20 Stand of Pinus densiflora
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21 Grand View of Capital (ca.1660)
「洛外図」 (部分 1660頃、作者不詳) Grand View of Capital (ca.1660)

22 Falconry (hunting by hawks) in Grand View in Capital (ca. 1540)
長坂峠付近での鷹狩り(「上杉本洛中洛外図」 1540年代頃) Falconry (hunting by hawks) in Grand View in Capital (ca. 1540)

23 Collecting fire wood  薪採取(「上杉本  洛中洛外図」より)

24 Collecting pine needles in Grand Views of Capital (1520-1530)
マツ葉を集める人々(「歴博甲本洛中洛外図」より) Collecting pine needles in Grand Views of Capital ( )

25 Pollen analysis at Midoro-ga-ike, Kyoto basin
Pine forest in Grand View in Capital (ca. AD1660) Villagers in Midoro bought the right of grass harvest in Kibune (AD1599) Bare hills and sparse pine trees in Grand View in Capital (AD1530/1550) ca AD1660 + AD1030 Foundation of Heian Capital (AD794) AD640 Pottery kilns were made (6-7th century)

26 Tricoloma matsutake (S. Ito et Imai) Sing. (Matsu-take: pine mushroom)
forming mycorhiza with P. densiflora . None has succeed to cultivate it so far.

27 Pine mushroom is one of the Japanese delicacies in autumn, the smell is special. Scent of it is very relished in Japan and some other countries in East Asia, but it adds only bad odor for people in other region of the world. Pine mushroom is consumed only in East Asia.

28 Enlargement of a evergreen broad-leaved species and decline of pine forests.
1961 1975 1987 2004 知恩院 粟田山 それにより得られたのがこれらの図です。 左から,1961年,1975年,1987年,2004年となっております。 また,下には各年のシイの樹冠面積を記しました。 1961年には知恩院の裏や清水寺の裏などでかたまった分布を示しており,1975年になると調査地の西側斜面の全域へと分布を拡大しました。 その後,大きな分布域の変化は見られませんが,徐々に分布を拡大している様子が見て取れます。 また,2004年になると粟田山の東側斜面においてもまとまった分布が見られるようになりました。 清水寺 清水山 6.9ha 19.0ha 25.6ha 32.1ha

29 Production and import of pine mushroom
12,222t(1941) ’30 :7,582t ’50:4,985t Import:1,554 t (2007) ’60:1,707t Domestic: 51 t Production and import of pine mushroom 29

30 Tricoloma caligatum from Algeria
Stand of Cedrus libani in Algeria 30 30

31 Tricoloma magnivelare from North America Host tree: Pinus spp
Tricoloma magnivelare from North America Host tree: Pinus spp., Tsuga spp. 31 31

32 Ecosystem services: benefits to mankind provided by ecosystem (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment)
Regulating Climate Pest Flood Detoxification Provisioning Food Water Fuel Fiber Chemical Genetic resource Cultural Spiritual Recreation Aesthetic Imagination Education Communal Symbolism Supporting Soil formation Nutrient cycling Primary production Sustainability

33 A mosaic land use for obtaining various ecosystem services can be found not only in Japan, but also in other regions in the world. It is called as Satoyama in Japan, Maeul in Korea, Munoa in Sarawak (Iban), Malaysia and so on. Especially regions with subsistence agriculture based on paddy field have their own TEK to maintain and utilize various plant materials in sustainable ways, which lead to, more or less, the conservation of biodiversity intentionally and unintentionally.

34 A message from Satoyama studies is not a nostalgic one “going back to the past”, but a highly contemporary one: TEK in each region and area for obtaining ecosystem services in sustainable way gives us a hint for building new lifestyles of health and sustainability, and for establishing a compatible way of biodiversity conservation and utilization.

35 Acknowledgements Members of RIHN project “A new cultural and historical exploration into human-nature relations in the Japanese Archipelago” Colleagues in Sub-global Assessment of Satoyama-Satoumi in Japan (Institute of Advance Studies, United Nations University)


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