Presentation on theme: "Shells, Bubbles, Worms, and Chimneys: Highlights from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey Shantanu Basu U. Western Ontario Michigan State University October."— Presentation transcript:
Shells, Bubbles, Worms, and Chimneys: Highlights from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey Shantanu Basu U. Western Ontario Michigan State University October 19, 2000
A Universe of Stars? A Universe of Hydrogen gas
The Interstellar Medium The matter between the stars, mostly hydrogen gas A complex balance between the conversion of gas to stars and the feedback from stars, e.g., massive stars at the end of their life The ISM holds the key to understanding star formation The ISM plays a key role in understanding galaxy formation and evolution Details of ISM evolution best studied in our Galaxy
The Evolution of Matter The “ecosystem” of galaxies
The Milky Way Galaxy is the only galaxy close enough to see the details of the Galactic “Ecosystem”. Challenges The Galactic plane encircles the Earth –A large area of sky must be observed The Galaxy is a 3-dimensional object –Must untangle the third dimension High Angular resolution is need to see the details in the context of the larger picture –A very large data base A large range of wavelengths must be covered to see all major components of the ISM –Several telescopes will be required
Milky Way in Optical Light ( mm) Stars obscured by dust
Milky Way in Far-infrared Light ( mm) Old red stars with little obscuration
Milky Way at Sub-millimetre ( =0.240 mm ) Dust now seen as an emitter
Milky Way at Radio (21 cm) Atomic hydrogen gas (the basic stuff of the Universe)
The Milky Way at Radio (74 cm) Ionized gas and magnetic fields
Objectives of the CGPS Science Goals: How does the interstellar medium evolve? Explore the evolutionary relationship between the phases and states of the interstellar medium. How do galaxies convert diffuse primordial hydrogen to stars and the building blocks of life? What energizes and shapes the medium? Characterize the energy sources and modes of energy transport Is the Milky Way a closed system? Explore the vertical structure out of the disk. Is there mass and energy exchange between the disk and extragalactic space? Observing Goals: Create a high-resolution (1arcminute), 3-dimensional map of the interstellar medium of the Milky Way. The first large-scale, spectral line, aperture synthesis survey ever made. Construct a Galactic Plane Survey Data base of the distribution of major constituents of the interstellar medium.
The CGPS Data Base All images at 1 arcminute resolution
Where is the CGPS? Survey covers Galactic longitudes l = to and latitude b = to
The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory
Milky Way at Radio (21 cm) Butler & Hartmann (1994), Leiden-Dwingeloo Survey, 35’ resolution
Atomic Hydrogen Image from a Single Antenna Radio Telescope 25-m Radio Telescope, Dwingeloo Netherlands Foundation for Radio Astronomy
Atomic Hydrogen Image from a Radio Interferometer 7-element Interferometer, Penticton Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory equivalent diameter equals 600m
Slicing up the Milky Way Galaxy Sun Galactic Centre Velocity changes systematically with distance along the line of sight.
A top-down view of the hydrogen cube The Perseus spiral arm The Local spiral arm Outer spiral arm
A Close-up view of the Perseus Arm
Optical Image Stars and Ionized gas (Thanks to Alan Dyer) Radio 21cm image Neutral Hydrogen gas (Perseus Spiral Arm)
Optical Image Stars and Ionized gas Far-Infrared Image Dust Particles
Optical Image Stars and Ionized gas Radio 74 cm image Ionized Gas
Optical Image Stars and Ionized gas Composite Image Hydrogen Gas Dust Ionized Gas
W4: A Chimney to the Galactic halo? A “chimney” may be blown out by a cluster of massive hot stars at the bottom Intense ultra-violet radiation “leaks” out of the galaxy
W4 Superbubble HI velocity channel map Normandeau, Taylor, & Dewdney (1996, 1997); CGPS Pilot Project H map Dennison, Topasna, & Simonetti (1997); model overlay by Basu, Johnstone, & Martin (1999)
Blowout from Galactic disk: Theory MacLow & McCray (1988);MacLow, McCray, & Norman (1989) Compare to expansion in a uniform medium: Bubble can stall at radius Therefore, bubble “blows out” if stalling parameter
Blowout from Galactic disk: Theory Kompaneets (1960) analytic solution for ambient atmosphere e - z/H. P ext =0. Solid lines: shock front => where y, between 0 and 2H, parameterizes the evolution of the bubble. Dashed lines: streamlines Can fit the observed aspect ratio of W4 (Basu, Johnstone, & Martin (1999): More generally, r(z=0) ~2H in late stages. We observe r(z=0) ~ 50 pc
Another H I shell: G Normandeau, Taylor, Dewdney, & Basu (2000). Apply aspect ratio argument using Kompaneets model and estimated distance (~2.2 kpc) to obtain Note: relatively small H => superbubbles may have limited influence near Galactic plane.
Classical picture of Galactic gas scale height e.g., Spitzer (1978) = ratio of magnetic energy density to kinetic energy density of clouds, = ratio of cosmic ray pressure to kinetic energy density. Consistent with large scale surveys of H I. But individual star-forming regions appear to be distinct.
Ionization front in a stratified medium (W4) Basu, Johnstone, & Martin (1999) Initial ionization front around an H II region for R St /H = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1, 2, 3, and 4. Atmosphere = e - z/H. Breakout when R St /H > 1. Ionization front around a wind-swept shell in the same atmosphere for n = 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm -3. Require n > 10 cm -3 to fit observations of W4.
Evolution of Ionization Front Basu, Johnstone, & Martin (1999) - emission measure through ionized region. Ionizing photons initially escape atmosphere, then trapped by wind- swept shell, then break out of the top part of shell. Competition of n 2 dependence of recombination rate vs. diverging streamlines. Eventually, some 15% of ionizing photons escape through the top of shell. If this is typical of superbubbles, can it explain the Reynolds layer (scale height of free electrons ~ 1 kpc)?
Age of W4 Superbubble Age agrees with estimates for age of cluster OCl 352 at the base of the superbubble; consistent with bubble powered by stellar winds. Dynamics of W4 Superbubble Numerical hydrodynamic simulations predict lack of collimation at large height and Rayleigh-Taylor instability => not seen! Likely need to run MHD models for a more complete picture.
Atomic Hydrogen Mushroom Cloud
The Mushroom Cloud: GW Challenges to conventional superbubble models: 1) narrow stem width and large cap to stem width ratio 2) bulk of mass in cap 3) excess of H I emission, not a deficit A jet, buoyant bubble, or something else? English et al. (2000)
The Mushroom Cloud: GW English et al. (2000) => a buoyant supernova remnant. Illustrate the effect with Zeus-2D numerical simulations. Look at case in which R stall < H.
What’s Next? A Global Galactic Plane Survey Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory National Research Council of Canada Australia Telescope Compact Array Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organisation Very Large Array U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory
A Global Survey: CGPS, VGPS and SGPS CGPS 1+2 : SGPS: VGPS:
Conclusions Only a small fraction of the Galaxy has so far been mapped in 1 arcminute resolution. Some of what has been learned: First close-up views of exotic phenomena (chimney, mushroom) related to the disk-halo interaction (matter and radiation transport) in our Galaxy First comparison of observed superbubble(s) with theoretical models. Evidence for highly stratified ISM near star-forming regions => superbubbles have limited influence near Galactic Plane; significant fraction of ionizing photons can escape to high latitudes Widespread complex polarization patterns - a tracer of magnetic field and ionized medium In the future, expanded CGPS + VGPS + SGPS will: Observe nearly full Galactic longitude range at 1 arcminute resolution Focus on individual disk-halo interaction candidates to higher latitude Explore star formation by focusing on atomic gas around molecular clouds