2Outline Introduction Distinctions Between Kingdoms Protista and Fungi Kingdom Fungi – The True FungiPhylum Chytridiomycota – The ChytridsPhylum Zygomycota – The Coenocytic True FungiPhylum Ascomycota – The Ascomycetes (Sac Fungi)Phylum Basidiomycota – The Basidiomycetes (Club Fungi)Phylum Deuteromycota – The Deuteromycetes (Imperfect Fungi)Lichens
3IntroductionFungi and bacteria are the most important organisms that break down organic materials.Fungi produce intertwined mass of delicate threads.Hyphae (singular: hypha) - Individual threadsMycelium - Mass of hyphae
4Distinctions Between Kingdoms Protista and Fungi All true fungi are filamentous or unicellular heterotrophs, most of which absorb their food in solution through cell walls.Chitin in cell wallsAll are filamentous, with the exception of some chytrids and all yeasts.Most lack motile cells.Members of Kingdom Fungi are placed in five phyla.
5Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Phylum Chytridiomycota - The chytridsSimple, mostly one-celled organismsSome are parasitic, and other are saprobic.Saprobic - Feed on nonliving organic materialSome consist of a spherical cell with colorless, branching threads (rhizoids) at one end for anchorage.Some develop short hyphae or even complete mycelia that is coenocytic.Coenocytic - Without crosswalls
6Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Phylum Chytridiomycota - The chytridsMany reproduce only asexually through the production of zoospores within a spherical cell.Sexual reproduction by fusion of haploid gametesZygote undergoes meiosis and is often a resting spore.
7Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Phylum Zygomycota - The coenocytic true fungiBlack bread molds - Best- known members of this phylumRhizopus - Well-known and found everywhereCoenocytic hyphae with numerous haploid nucleiAsexual reproduction:Sporangiophores grow upright and produce sporangia at tips.Black spores formed in sporangia.A zygomycete sporangium
8Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Phylum Zygomycota - The coenocytic true fungiSexual reproduction by conjugationProgametangia on hyphae of different mating strains become gametangia.Gametangia merge and become multinucleate coenozygote when nuclei of two strains fuse in pairsThick wall forms around coenozygote = zygosporangium containing numerous diploid nuclei.Meiosis forms spores in sporangia on sporangiophores.
9Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Phylum Zygomycota - The coenocytic true fungiHuman and ecological relevance of the coenocytic true fungi:Food sourcesTempeh in IndonesiaIndustrial usesPharmaceuticalsManufacture of birth control pills and anestheticsPigmentsYellow pigment for coloring margarine
10Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Phylum Ascomycota - The ascomycetes (sac fungi)Truffles are reproductive bodies.Also includes yeasts, powdery mildews, ergot, and morelsMost produce mycelia with hyphae partitioned into individual cylindrical cells.
11Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Phylum Ascomycota - The ascomycetes (sac fungi)Asexual reproduction:Single or chains of conidia produced at tips of hyphae called conidiophores.Budding - YeastsBudding in yeast
12Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Phylum Ascomycota - The ascomycetes (sac fungi)Sexual reproduction:Antheridium and ascogonium from two hyphae connect.Male nuclei migrate into ascogonium where nuclei pair, but do not unite.Ascogenous hyphae, whose cells contain one male and one female nucleus, grow from ascogonium.Ascoma forms, with hymenial layer composed of sacs called asci (singular: ascus).AscomaThe two nuclei in each ascus unite to form zygotes that undergo meiosis.Resulting cells divide by mitosis forming a row of eight ascospores in each ascus.
13Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Phylum Ascomycota - The ascomycetes (sac fungi)Sexual reproduction:
14Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Phylum Ascomycota - The ascomycetes (sac fungi)Human and ecological relevance of the sac fungi:Food:Morels and trufflesYeastFermentation produces ethyl alcohol - Wines, beersCO2 causes bread dough to rise and gives it porous texture.
15Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Phylum Ascomycota - The ascomycetes (sac fungi)Human and ecological relevance:Ergot fungus may infect rye and other grains.Ergotism may occur in those who eat the contaminated bread.Ergot drugs are medicinally useful in small doses.Initial source for the manufacture of LSDPlant diseases - Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight
16Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Phylum Basidiomycota - The basidiomycetes (club fungi)Includes mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs, shelf fungi, rusts, smuts, jelly fungiHyphae divided into individual cells.
17Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Phylum Basidiomycota - The basidiomycetes (club fungi)Asexual reproduction:InfrequentMainly through conidiaEach cell of hyphae contain a single haploid nucleus = monokaryotic hyphae.Sexual reproduction:Hyphae of individual mating types unite and initiate a new mycelium, called dikaryotic hyphae, in which each cell has one nucleus from each original mating type.
18Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Phylum Basidiomycota - The basidiomycetes (club fungi)Sexual reproduction:Dikaryotic mycelium forms basidioma (plural: basidiomata) = mushroom.Mushroom composed of cap = pileus, stalk = stipe, and annulus.Gills - Plates that radiate out from stalk on underside of cap
19Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Phylum Basidiomycota - The basidiomycetes (club fungi)Sexual reproduction:Basidia (swollen ends of hyphae) on gillsThe two nuclei in each basidium unite and the resulting diploid nucleus undergoes meiosis.4 resulting basidiospores sit on sterigmata at tip of basidium.
20Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Phylum Basidiomycota - The basidiomycetes (club fungi)Sexual reproduction:
21Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Phylum BasidiomycotaFairy rings - Dikaryotic hyphae radiate out from starting point, producing basidiomata.Boletes - Produce spores on surface of pores instead of gills
22Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Phylum BasidiomycotaShelf fungi - Grow horizontally from bark or dead woodPuffballs - Spores released from pore at top.Bird’s nest fungi - Egglike bodies contain basidiospores.
23Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Phylum BasidiomycotaParasitic species that do not form basidiomata:SmutsGrain cropsMycelium absorbs nutrients from host cells.Secrete substances that stimulate host cells to form tumorsRusts - Attack a wide variety of plantsBlack stem rust - Requires two hostsCorn smut
24Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Phylum BasidiomycotaLifecycle of rusts:
25Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Phylum BasidiomycotaHuman and ecological relevance of the club fungi:PoisonousFewer than 75 of the approximately 25,000 described species are poisonous.FoodShiitake mushroomsCommercial mushroom bedHigh in protein, calcium, phosphorous, and iron.Portabella mushroomsLentinacin and other pharmaceutical extractsNutrient recycling in soil
26Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Phylum Deuteromycota - The deuteromycetes (imperfect fungi)Conidiophore of AspergillusFungi for which a sexual stage has not been observedGrouped together in an artificial phylumMost commonly reproduce by conidia
27Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Phylum Deuteromycota - The deuteromycetes (imperfect fungi)Human and ecological relevance of the imperfect fungi:PenicilliumAntibioticsGourmet cheeseAspergillusCitric acid, soy sauce, miso, artificial flavoringPhotographic developers, dyesAspergilloses (respiratory disease), athlete’s footAflotoxin (carcinogen)Penicillium colonyBlue cheese
28LichensConsist of a fungus and an alga (or cyanobacterium) intimately associated in a spongy thallusPhotosynthetic component supplies food.Fungus protects the photosynthetic organism from harmful light intensities, and absorbs and retains water and minerals.Three genera of green algae and one genus of cyanobacterium involved in 90% of all lichen species.Each lichen has own unique species of fungus, usually a sac fungus.Lichen species are identified according to their fungus.
29LichensGrow very slowly, and are capable of living extremely long periods of time.Gelatinous substance in thallus allows them to withstand alternating wet and dry periods.Usually consist of three or four layers:Upper cortex - Protective layerCompressed hyphae with gelatinous substancesAlgal layer - Algae cells scattered among hyphaeMedulla - Loosely packed hyphaeLower cortex - May or may not be presentCovered with hyphae called rhizines for anchorage
31Lichens Usually grouped into three major growth forms: Crustose - Attached to or embedded in substrate over entire lower surfaceFoliose - Contain leaf-like thalli which often overlapFruticose - Resemble miniature upright shrubs, or hang down in festoons from branches.
32Lichens Human and ecological relevance of lichens: Exceptionally sensitive to pollutionSulfur dioxidePossible to calculate amount of sulfur dioxide present in air solely by mapping occurrence or disappearance of certain lichens.Nuclear radiationDegradation of historic structuresFood for animals - Reindeer eat fruticose lichen.Food supplementsAntibiotic propertiesDyes
33Review Introduction Distinctions Between Kingdoms Protista and Fungi Kingdom Fungi – The True FungiPhylum Chytridiomycota – The ChytridsPhylum Zygomycota – The Coenocytic True FungiPhylum Ascomycota – The Ascomycetes (Sac Fungi)Phylum Basidiomycota – The Basidiomycetes (Club Fungi)Phylum Deuteromycota – The Deuteromycetes (Imperfect Fungi)Lichens