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Chapter 19 Lecture Outline Kingdom Fungi Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 19 Lecture Outline Kingdom Fungi Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 19 Lecture Outline Kingdom Fungi Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 Outline  Introduction  Distinctions Between Kingdoms Protista and Fungi  Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Phylum Chytridiomycota – The Chytrids Phylum Zygomycota – The Coenocytic True Fungi Phylum Ascomycota – The Ascomycetes (Sac Fungi) Phylum Basidiomycota – The Basidiomycetes (Club Fungi) Phylum Deuteromycota – The Deuteromycetes (Imperfect Fungi)  Lichens

3 Introduction  Fungi and bacteria are the most important organisms that break down organic materials.  Fungi produce intertwined mass of delicate threads. Hyphae (singular: hypha) - Individual threads Mycelium - Mass of hyphae

4 Distinctions Between Kingdoms Protista and Fungi  All true fungi are filamentous or unicellular heterotrophs, most of which absorb their food in solution through cell walls.  Chitin in cell walls  All are filamentous, with the exception of some chytrids and all yeasts.  Most lack motile cells.  Members of Kingdom Fungi are placed in five phyla.

5 Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi  Phylum Chytridiomycota - The chytrids Simple, mostly one-celled organisms Some are parasitic, and other are saprobic. – Saprobic - Feed on nonliving organic material Some consist of a spherical cell with colorless, branching threads (rhizoids) at one end for anchorage. Some develop short hyphae or even complete mycelia that is coenocytic. – Coenocytic - Without crosswalls

6 Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi  Phylum Chytridiomycota - The chytrids Many reproduce only asexually through the production of zoospores within a spherical cell. Sexual reproduction by fusion of haploid gametes Zygote undergoes meiosis and is often a resting spore.

7 Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi  Phylum Zygomycota - The coenocytic true fungi Black bread molds - Best- known members of this phylum – Rhizopus - Well-known and found everywhere Coenocytic hyphae with numerous haploid nuclei Asexual reproduction: – Sporangiophores grow upright and produce sporangia at tips. – Black spores formed in sporangia. A zygomycete sporangium

8 Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi – Progametangia on hyphae of different mating strains become gametangia. – Gametangia merge and become multinucleate coenozygote when nuclei of two strains fuse in pairs – Thick wall forms around coenozygote = zygosporangium containing numerous diploid nuclei. – Meiosis forms spores in sporangia on sporangiophores.  Phylum Zygomycota - The coenocytic true fungi  Sexual reproduction by conjugation

9 Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi  Phylum Zygomycota - The coenocytic true fungi Human and ecological relevance of the coenocytic true fungi: – Food sources o Tempeh in Indonesia – Industrial uses o Pharmaceuticals « Manufacture of birth control pills and anesthetics o Pigments « Yellow pigment for coloring margarine

10 Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi  Phylum Ascomycota - The ascomycetes (sac fungi) Truffles are reproductive bodies. Also includes yeasts, powdery mildews, ergot, and morels  Most produce mycelia with hyphae partitioned into individual cylindrical cells.

11 Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi  Phylum Ascomycota - The ascomycetes (sac fungi) Asexual reproduction: – Single or chains of conidia produced at tips of hyphae called conidiophores. – Budding - Yeasts Budding in yeast

12 Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi  Phylum Ascomycota - The ascomycetes (sac fungi) Sexual reproduction: – Antheridium and ascogonium from two hyphae connect. – Male nuclei migrate into ascogonium where nuclei pair, but do not unite. – Ascogenous hyphae, whose cells contain one male and one female nucleus, grow from ascogonium. – Ascoma forms, with hymenial layer composed of sacs called asci (singular: ascus). – The two nuclei in each ascus unite to form zygotes that undergo meiosis. – Resulting cells divide by mitosis forming a row of eight ascospores in each ascus. Ascoma

13 Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi  Phylum Ascomycota - The ascomycetes (sac fungi) Sexual reproduction:

14 Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi  Phylum Ascomycota - The ascomycetes (sac fungi) Human and ecological relevance of the sac fungi: – Food: o Morels and truffles o Yeast « Fermentation produces ethyl alcohol - Wines, beers « CO2 causes bread dough to rise and gives it porous texture.

15 Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi  Phylum Ascomycota - The ascomycetes (sac fungi) Human and ecological relevance: – Ergot fungus may infect rye and other grains. o Ergotism may occur in those who eat the contaminated bread. o Ergot drugs are medicinally useful in small doses. « Initial source for the manufacture of LSD – Plant diseases - Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight

16 Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Includes mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs, shelf fungi, rusts, smuts, jelly fungi Hyphae divided into individual cells.  Phylum Basidiomycota - The basidiomycetes (club fungi)

17 Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi  Phylum Basidiomycota - The basidiomycetes (club fungi) Asexual reproduction: – Infrequent o Mainly through conidia Each cell of hyphae contain a single haploid nucleus = monokaryotic hyphae. Sexual reproduction: – Hyphae of individual mating types unite and initiate a new mycelium, called dikaryotic hyphae, in which each cell has one nucleus from each original mating type.

18 Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi o Mushroom composed of cap = pileus, stalk = stipe, and annulus. o Gills - Plates that radiate out from stalk on underside of cap  Phylum Basidiomycota - The basidiomycetes (club fungi) Sexual reproduction: – Dikaryotic mycelium forms basidioma (plural: basidiomata) = mushroom.

19 Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi – Basidia (swollen ends of hyphae) on gills – The two nuclei in each basidium unite and the resulting diploid nucleus undergoes meiosis. – 4 resulting basidiospores sit on sterigmata at tip of basidium.  Phylum Basidiomycota - The basidiomycetes (club fungi) Sexual reproduction:

20 Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi  Phylum Basidiomycota - The basidiomycetes (club fungi) Sexual reproduction:

21 Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Fairy rings - Dikaryotic hyphae radiate out from starting point, producing basidiomata. Boletes - Produce spores on surface of pores instead of gills  Phylum Basidiomycota

22 Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi  Phylum Basidiomycota Puffballs - Spores released from pore at top. Bird’s nest fungi - Egglike bodies contain basidiospores. Shelf fungi - Grow horizontally from bark or dead wood

23 Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi  Phylum Basidiomycota Parasitic species that do not form basidiomata: – Smuts o Grain crops o Mycelium absorbs nutrients from host cells. o Secrete substances that stimulate host cells to form tumors – Rusts - Attack a wide variety of plants o Black stem rust - Requires two hosts Corn smut

24 Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi  Phylum Basidiomycota Lifecycle of rusts:

25 Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi  Phylum Basidiomycota Human and ecological relevance of the club fungi: – Poisonous o Fewer than 75 of the approximately 25,000 described species are poisonous. – Food o Shiitake mushrooms « High in protein, calcium, phosphorous, and iron. o Portabella mushrooms – Lentinacin and other pharmaceutical extracts – Nutrient recycling in soil Commercial mushroom bed

26 Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi  Phylum Deuteromycota - The deuteromycetes (imperfect fungi) Fungi for which a sexual stage has not been observed – Grouped together in an artificial phylum – Most commonly reproduce by conidia Conidiophore of Aspergillus

27 Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi  Phylum Deuteromycota - The deuteromycetes (imperfect fungi) Human and ecological relevance of the imperfect fungi: – Penicillium o Antibiotics o Gourmet cheese – Aspergillus o Citric acid, soy sauce, miso, artificial flavoring o Photographic developers, dyes o Aspergilloses (respiratory disease), athlete’s foot o Aflotoxin (carcinogen ) Penicillium colony Blue cheese

28 Lichens  Consist of a fungus and an alga (or cyanobacterium) intimately associated in a spongy thallus Photosynthetic component supplies food. Fungus protects the photosynthetic organism from harmful light intensities, and absorbs and retains water and minerals. – Three genera of green algae and one genus of cyanobacterium involved in 90% of all lichen species. – Each lichen has own unique species of fungus, usually a sac fungus. – Lichen species are identified according to their fungus.

29 Lichens  Grow very slowly, and are capable of living extremely long periods of time. Gelatinous substance in thallus allows them to withstand alternating wet and dry periods.  Usually consist of three or four layers: Upper cortex - Protective layer – Compressed hyphae with gelatinous substances Algal layer - Algae cells scattered among hyphae Medulla - Loosely packed hyphae Lower cortex - May or may not be present – Covered with hyphae called rhizines for anchorage

30 Lichens

31  Usually grouped into three major growth forms: Crustose - Attached to or embedded in substrate over entire lower surface Foliose - Contain leaf-like thalli which often overlap Fruticose - Resemble miniature upright shrubs, or hang down in festoons from branches.

32 Lichens  Human and ecological relevance of lichens: Exceptionally sensitive to pollution – Sulfur dioxide o Possible to calculate amount of sulfur dioxide present in air solely by mapping occurrence or disappearance of certain lichens. – Nuclear radiation Degradation of historic structures Food for animals - Reindeer eat fruticose lichen. Food supplements Antibiotic properties Dyes

33 Review  Introduction  Distinctions Between Kingdoms Protista and Fungi  Kingdom Fungi – The True Fungi Phylum Chytridiomycota – The Chytrids Phylum Zygomycota – The Coenocytic True Fungi Phylum Ascomycota – The Ascomycetes (Sac Fungi) Phylum Basidiomycota – The Basidiomycetes (Club Fungi) Phylum Deuteromycota – The Deuteromycetes (Imperfect Fungi)  Lichens

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