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Symbiotic Relationships in Nature MutualismCommensalismParasitism.

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Presentation on theme: "Symbiotic Relationships in Nature MutualismCommensalismParasitism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Symbiotic Relationships in Nature MutualismCommensalismParasitism

2 Symbiosis: a definition Sym: From the greek/latin meaning “with” Sym: From the greek/latin meaning “with” Bio: from the greek/latin meaning “to live” or “living” Bio: from the greek/latin meaning “to live” or “living” Symbiosis: A relationship where two organisms live together where at least one of the organisms benefits from the relationship. Symbiosis: A relationship where two organisms live together where at least one of the organisms benefits from the relationship.

3 Mutualism Both organisms benefit from the relationship. Both organisms benefit from the relationship. Win-Win Win-Win

4 Mutualism Racoon and Poison Ivy Racoon and Poison Ivy –The raccoon eats the berries of the poison ivy and disperses the seeds as it poops. –Both benefit.

5 Mutualism Black-eyed Susan gets pollinated by Green lacewing. Black-eyed Susan gets pollinated by Green lacewing. Both benefit…lacewing gets food (nectar) and Black-eyed Susan gets pollinated. Both benefit…lacewing gets food (nectar) and Black-eyed Susan gets pollinated. James L. Reveal, Norton-Brown Herbarium, University of Maryland Copyright, Edward S. Ross

6 Mutualism Mushroom and fly Mushroom and fly –Fly lands on and eats mushroom. Some of the spores will adhere to the fly. –When the fly dies, (of natural causes) the spores will be on new ground and will allow the mushroom to grow in a new area. © Garden Safarie,

7 Commensalism One organism benefits, the other one is unaffected. One organism benefits, the other one is unaffected. Win-Neutral relationship Win-Neutral relationship

8 Commensalism Red Maple and Eastern Bluebird Red Maple and Eastern Bluebird –Bluebird nests in the maple. –Maple is unaffected, bluebird benefits Copyright, Mark Brand, UConn Plant Database

9 Commensalism Eastern Chipmunk and Soil mite Eastern Chipmunk and Soil mite –The chipmunk is a mammal that burrows. –The soil mite feeds off of leaf litter but cannot burrow itself. –The mite uses the chipmunk’s tunnels to travel from place to place. Copyright, Ray Norton

10 Commensalism Pear-shaped puffball gets opened (and spores dispersed) by Opossum Pear-shaped puffball gets opened (and spores dispersed) by Opossum Puffball benefits, opossum is not affected. Puffball benefits, opossum is not affected. Copyright, Leon Shernoff

11 Commensalism British soldier lichen provides shelter for centipede. British soldier lichen provides shelter for centipede. Dr. Lutz Nevermann, Copyright, CCFB/photo by Kent Loeffler

12 Parasitism One organism benefits, the other one is negatively affected One organism benefits, the other one is negatively affected Win-Lose relationship Win-Lose relationship Parasites rarely kill their hosts…it would require them to get another one! Parasites rarely kill their hosts…it would require them to get another one!

13 Parasitism Chigger lives and eats away at hognose snake. Chigger lives and eats away at hognose snake. ATW from Kountry Life

14 Parasitism Dogwood tree is parasitized by honeysuckle. Dogwood tree is parasitized by honeysuckle. Michael Clayton, Wisconsin State Herbarium Department of Botany, Iowa St. University

15 Parasitism Ohio State University Bullfrog acts as a host of the big red worm parasite.


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