Presentation on theme: "The Fungi Kingdom Mycology -the study of fungi fungi - singular fungus - plural 1) fungi are eukaryotic they have a nuclei & mitochondria 2) they are."— Presentation transcript:
The Fungi Kingdom Mycology -the study of fungi fungi - singular fungus - plural 1) fungi are eukaryotic they have a nuclei & mitochondria 2) they are heterotrophs they depend on other organisms for food 3) they are multicellular 4) they cannot move on their own 4 Main Characteristics of Fungi
The Fungi Kingdom 1) fungi lack chlorophyll 2) fungi are not photosynthetic cannot produce their own food 3) they never reproduce by seeds 4) most fungi have cell walls made of chitin… 4 Reasons Fungi Are Different From Plants cellulose Plant cell walls are made of what? most are saprophytes some are parasites Saprophyte- feeds on dead/decaying organisms
The Fungi Kingdom Parts of fungi: Hyphae - network of thin thread-like structures that form the “body” of a fungus hyphae grow and branch until they cover and digest the food source (upon which the fungi is growing) hyphae contain cytoplasm hypha - singular hyphae - plural
The Fungi Kingdom Parts of fungi: Mycelium -a mass of hyphae mycelia - plural The mycelium is usually hidden in the soil, in wood, or another food source A mycelium may fill a single ant, or cover many acres
The Fungi Kingdom Sporangium fungi reproduces by spores in the sporangia Sporangia- structures found on the tips of hyphae that make spores Eg: Bread Mold,Peronospore Bread mold produces spores in sporangia that stick up above the bread Main Types of Fungi: 1.Zygomycota/Common molds Spraying with blue vitriol
The Fungi Kingdom 2. Sac Fungi - produce spores in sac-like structures Eg: yeasts,cup fungi,powdery mildews,Penicillinum Types of Fungi 1.Reproduce sexually and asexually a.Asexually by spores b.Sexually by mating of hyphae filaments
2. Sac fungi (Ascomycotes) Unicellular, reproduces by budding Sir Alexander Flemming-penicillin Ergot Morels
3. Phylum Basidiomycota – Club Fungi Gets name from specialized reproduction structure resembling a club, called basidium – found on the underside of mushroom cap in the gills One mushroom may produce 1 billion spores Some are edible, some are toxic Examples: Mushrooms, toadstools Most elaborate life cycle of all the fungi button /or cup
The Fungi Kingdom What are we looking at when we see a… fungus-among-us? The ‘living’ body of the fungus is a mycelium The part of the fungus that we see is only the “fruit” of the organism
The Fungi Kingdom the structure of the fungi that you can see, is the part that carries out reproduction most fungi reproduce by using spores Reproduction is classified according to: fungi spores are microscopic EX: Mushrooms & puffballs release large clouds of spores. Each cloud contains millions of spores Fungi Reproduction: 1) the way they form the spores 2) the shape of the structure in which spores are made
3. Club fungi (Basidiomycetes) Earth stars Brackets Puffballs Jack-o’-lantern
3. Club fungi (Basidiomycetes) Toadstool Eg: Death cap Champignon
Importance of fungi -many of them live in mutualism with the roots of trees. They can substitute root hairs as in the case of pine trees. -they can be decomposers -they can cause diseases to plants, to animals or even humans -they can be edible or poisonous -they can be useful for alimentary,distilling and pharmaceutical industry
Truffles are round, warty, fungi that are irregular in shape. They vary from the size of a walnut to that of a man's fist. Since the times of the Greeks and Romans these fungi have been used in Europe as delicacies, as aphrodisiacs, and as medicines. They are among the most expensive of the world's natural foods, often commanding as much as $250 to $450 per pound. Truffles are harvested in Europe with the aid of female pigs or truffle dogs, which are able to detect the strong smell of mature truffles underneath the surface of the ground. The female pig becomes excited when she sniffs a chemical that is similar to the male swine sex attractant. The use of dogs to find truffles is also and option.
What Are Lichens? Lichens are made up of two, and some times three, different organisms from three different Kingdoms, which form a symbiotic relationship with each other for their mutual survival. The dominant member is a ascomycetous fungus (Kingdom Fungi), which is capable of making it's own food. –The fungus forms the visible portion of lichen inside of which, and protected by them, are cells of an algae (kingdom Protista) or some times cyanobacteria (Kingdom Monera), once known as blue-green algae. –Some lichen can consist of all three organisms at once.
* Lichens are dual organisms, so they are difficult to place in a classification * They represent symbiotic (mutualistic) relationships between fungi and green algae, fungi and cyanobacteria, or fungi and both * The fungus is the dominant physical component of the lichen thallus, and lichens are usually classified with the fungi * Nevertheless, the association appears to have originated through fungi parasitizing algae and/or cyanobacteria Where do lichens belong in the classification of living organisms?
Human Uses of Lichens Brown, purple and red fabric dyes (e.g. Scottish tweeds and tartans) * Part of the daily diet, e.g. Lecanora esculenta (“manna”?) in Iran, flour from Cetraria islandica (Iceland moss) in Scandinavian ship’s biscuits, Inuit “nirukkaq” - partly digested lichens from caribou & muskox stomachs in winter * Commercial production of sugar in Russia, WWII * ‘Iwatake (Umbilicaria esculanta) as delicacy in Japan
More uses of lichens - medicine, embalming and perfumery Many lichen extracts are inhibitory to the growth of Gram-positive bacteria * Some are also effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosus * Oakmoss (Evernia prunastri) and Treemoss (Pseudoevernia furfuracea) are used in Europe to make fixatives for perfumes and soaps. * The antibiotic properties of lichens were exploited by the ancient Egyptians in their embalming procedures
Special characteristics of lichens -they are pioneers -they produce acid to dissolve rocks -they don’t tolerate sulphur-dioxide in the air -as they die massively in case of air pollution, they are indicators of it.