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Dinesh R. BHUJU Chief, Faculty of Science Nepal Academy of Science & Technology _____________________________________________________ SPECIES RESPONSE.

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Presentation on theme: "Dinesh R. BHUJU Chief, Faculty of Science Nepal Academy of Science & Technology _____________________________________________________ SPECIES RESPONSE."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dinesh R. BHUJU Chief, Faculty of Science Nepal Academy of Science & Technology _____________________________________________________ SPECIES RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN HIGH ALTITUDES initiative of a national organization in the Himalayan discourse

2 Establishment 1982 Autonomous & Statutory Role envisaged: Think Tank Innovator Catalyst Facilitator Nepal Academy of Science & Technology Advancing science and technology for all-round national development

3 MOU between NAST & EvK2CNR in 1988 Pyramid Lab. built in 1990 Features: Glass & Aluminium, 3- storied, Ht 8.4m, Alt. 5,050m asl The Initiation PYRAMID LABORATORY

4 The Activities PYRAMID LABORATORY Research Areas: i. Environment, ii. Biodiversity, iii. Earth Sc, iv. Medicine & Human Physiology, and v. Clean Technology Missions conducted >500 involving143 scientific institutions from several nations.

5 NAST’s Initiatives RESEARCH IN HIGH ALTITUDES Anthropogenic Activities Biodiversity Knowledge Climate Change Impact

6 Climate Change Studies MAJOR AREAS Baseline Inventories 1) Agrobiodiversity 2) Mushroom diversity 3) Herbaceous vegetation Dendro-climatological Studies 1) Reconstruction of env. history 2) Relationship between temp. & vegetation shift

7 Baseline Inventories AGRO-BIODIVERSITY Study Area Namche, Khumjung, Phortse, Dole, Luza, Fanga, Machermo, Gokyo, Tengboche, Debuche, Pangboche, Dingboche, Pheriche, Jorsalle, Monju and Phakdin (16 settlements) Methodology Questionnaire survey, sample collection & analysis

8 Major Findings Upper Limits (m asl) Staple crops: Barley 4,350; Buckwheat 3,930 Vegetables: Coriander 4,480, Radish/Turnip/Onion/Peas 4,359 Cauliflower, Carrot 3,930 Potatoes 4,700 (Tarnak) Ref. D Bhuju, A Giri, P Rana 2007 Baseline Inventories AGRO-BIODIVERSITY

9 Baseline Inventories MUSHROOM BIODIVERSITY Study Area: SNP Methodology Field visit, Collection & analysis Major Findings Richness 150 spp. Used locally 29 spp. Highest 3,500-4,000m asl Ref. A Giri, P Rana 2006

10 Baseline Inventories HERBACEOUS DIVERSITY Study Area Imja Valley 3,400-4,650m asl Methodology Sampling, Collection, Analysis Major Findings Richness 180 spp, Location recorded, 32 spp in higher range than previously reported Ref. E Paudel, D Bhuju, K Shrestha 2007

11 Objective Understand the impact of climate change on the distribution of forest vegetation in the Himalaya Methodology 1. Set-up permanent plots 2. Tree inventory 3. Tree core collection & analysis Site Tree-line Climatic Impact DENDRO-CLIMATOLOGICAL STUDY

12 Climatic Impact DENDROCHRONOLOGY Trees are nature’s ultimate environmental monitoring stations, make annual rings Dendrochronology, Method of scientific dating based on the analysis of tree-ring growth patterns Tree rings are called proxy- climate indicators

13 Pangboche, 4,050m asl Dendro-climatological Study PERMANENT PLOTS Deboche, Alt. 3,850m

14 BA (cm 2 /ha)DENSITY (n/ha) SPECIESPanbocheDebuchePanbocheDebuche Abies spectabilis79059.268228.8120359 Betula utilis27831.984990.3204149 Sorbus microphylla4785.015030.5117279 TOTAL111862.1186107.64451034 MEAN DBHMAX DBH SPECIESPanbocheDebuchePanbocheDebuche Abies spectabilis24.98.56899 Betula utilis11.624.04063 Sorbus microphylla5.77.43936 TOTAL13.610.46899 Dendro-climatological Study RESULT: FOREST STRUCTURE ____________________________________________________

15 Dendro-climatological Study TREE CORE COLLECTION Core Collection Abies spectabilis Juniperus recurva Betula utilis Total About 300 from various sites Preservation, Mounting & Sanding

16 Bell shaped, poor regeneration in recent years Inverse J, accelerating recruitments in recent years Average age: Panboche 64 yrs; Debuche 64 yrs Max. age: Panboche 147 yrs; Debuche 207 yrs Dendro-climatological Study TREE CORE ANALYSIS

17 Climatic Impact DENDRO-LAB Lab Facility: 1. Lin-Tab digital positioning table for tree-ring analysis 2. Leica S4E stereo microscope 3. LintabTm swing arm stand 4. TSAP-Win Prof. software

18 Participating Institutions Central Dept of Env Sc. Tribhuvan Univ. Department of Plant Resources, GON The Standard Nursery Pvt Ltd Nepal Academy of Science & Technology College for Applied Sciences Dept. of Forest Research & Survey, GON Dept of Hydrology & Meteorology, GON National Trust for Nature Conservation Dept. of National Parks & Wildlife Cons. Ethnobotanical Society of Nepal Madan Puraskar Guthi Central Dept. of Botany, TU Climatic Impact DENDRO-TRAINING WORKSHOP Date: 15-22 Jan 2008 Total Participants: 18 Resource Persons: Univ. of Padova

19 Climatic Impact DENDRO-CLIMATOLOGICAL STUDIES Langtang National Park NP Gaire, YB Dhakal, H Lekhak 2008; TU Abies spectabilis; Core: 210 Manaslu Conservation Area M Suwal 2009 UIB-TU; Gaire & Bhuju 2010 Abies spectabilis; Core: 148+ Manang (trans-Himalaya) KB Shrestha 2009; UIB, Norway Pinus roxburghii; Core: 133 Mustang (trans-Himalaya) E Udas; UG; Germany Abies spectabilis; Core: 109 Kathmandu Valley NP Gaire & DR Bhuju, NAST Pinus roxburghii; Core 65

20 Climatic Impact RESULTS: MANASLU There was new recruitments of seedlings and saplings in tree-line ecotone. The species limit has advanced from 3,673m asl in 1958 to 3,841m asl in 2007 with a total of 168 m upslope shift at the average rate of 34.29 m per decade. The seedlings below tree-line have comparatively faster growth. ______________________________ Ref. M. Suwal 2010

21 Abies spectabilis Betula utilis Transect 1 Transect 2 Transect 1 Transect 2 Species limit/line 3984395539964003 Tree line 3907383039964003 Preliminary result: upward migration of Abies spectabilis by >1m/yr Ref. Gaire & Bhuju 2010 Climatic Impact RESULTS: MANASLU

22 Climatic Impact RESULTS: LANGTANG 1.There was significant -ve correlation between the tree growth & mean monthly min. temp. of Mar & Apr of the current year, Oct of the previous year, and mean of Mar-May temp. of the current year. 2.Though statistically insignificant, there was +ve correlation between ring width and mean monthly precipitation of the most of the months of current year and -ve correlation with previous year’ precipitation. ________________ Ref. NP Gaire 2008

23 Climatic Impact RESULTS: MUSTANG The positive response of temperature (previous Nov, current Feb-Mar-May) during the early and mid 20th century was either both discontinuous and showed no correlation with tree growth at later period (Feb-Mar) or it turned to be negatively associated with growth (previous Nov and current May). This recent change in sensitivity of tree growth and temperature variability was unclear. ____________________ Ref. E Udas 2010

24 Climatic Impact WHAT NEXT Extend the study area Strengthen the Dendro-Lab International collaboration

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