Presentation on theme: "21 April 2010 Growing and packing citrus to meet export market requirements."— Presentation transcript:
21 April 2010 Growing and packing citrus to meet export market requirements
Discussion points Pre-plant investigation Post plant critical points Production practices Picking and handling activities Packing process
Pre-plant investigation Ensure investment is economically viable –Cost of production Quality Quantity –Demand for product Timing Quality requirements Environmental impact study –Sustainable production Map orchards –Assist with management
…Pre-plant investigation Suitability of “terroir” –Soil Suitability for long term production –Water Sufficient supply Efficient use –Climate Quality of product Choice of varieties
… Pre-plant investigation Horticultural aspects –Suitable rootstocks Soil Compatibility –Suitable varieties Optimise seasonal fruit flow Market demand –Habit of growth for selected varieties Optimum espacement –Wind protection –Certified nursery trees
Post plant critical points Integrated production management –Fertilisation –Irrigation –Pest control –Disease control Crop management –Remove all fruit in first 3 – 4 years Pruning –Light pruning to shape trees
Production practices Objective = optimum yield & quality Integrated production management –Fertilisation Soil & leaf analyses –Irrigation Use growth curves Scheduling instruments –Pest & Disease control Monitor - trained scouts Record fruit culls Develop threshold levels Orchard sanitation (decay, fruit fly, FCM) Adhere to usage restrictions for plant protection products
…Production practices Market access –Adhere to phyto requirements –Apply specific GAP’s –Compliance to certification/accreditation requirements GlobalGAP minimum Social accountability Ethical Labour practices –Safe handling & storage of chemicals –“ Due diligent” checks – chemical residues
Picking and handling Objective – optimise shelf-life Optimum picking window –Internal & external quality –Maturity indexing – 5 weeks before planned date Optimum climatic conditions –Humidity –Temperature Harvesting to be supervised –Quality standards –Colour standards –Cleanliness of fruit –Safe handling (injuries) Adhere to time protocols –Condition of equipment –Road surfaces –Sun? – cover fruit
Time Protocol: Picking to Cooling Time Protocol Picking to Cooling ActionMaximum Period (days) NavelsValenciasLemonsGrapefruitSoft Citrus Pick – drench (degreening)* 36h Pick – pack (no degreening)* 33332 Drench - Degreening 11111 Degreening period (maximum) 33332.5 Degreening - Pack 11111 Rejected: Re-pack – Re-inspection 2222NA Total Period: Pick – Pack** 10 7 Pack – Intake (Subtract 3 days for degreened fruit) 44443 Intake - Cooling 22221 *If temperature is above 20 o C fruit should be drenched within 24 hours (also for fruit that is not degreened and packed immediately). ** In cases where fruit has be accumulated.
Packing Apply GMP’s –Protocols –Procedures –Monitor –Record keeping HACCP – basic requirements –Food Safety Risks = Critical Control Points –Written procedures to prevent product contamination Trained labour force –Cleanliness –Safety –Dress code
Packing Ensure traceability –On orchard level –Product recall procedures Quality standard per market specification –Monitoring of grading standard –Correctness of Packing, packaging, labelling, palletisation, marking –Draw retention monsters Phyto specifications –Correct sampling procedures –Correct handling procedures
Packing Post harvest chemicals –Correct dosage –Compliance to MRL’s per market specification Residue samples Adhere to the time protocols Pack house to be regularly sanitized
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