Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Adverbial SUBORDINATE CLAUSE

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Adverbial SUBORDINATE CLAUSE"— Presentation transcript:

1 Adverbial SUBORDINATE CLAUSE
Chapter 23 Adverbial SUBORDINATE CLAUSE Elizabeth Villa

2 Adverbial Subordinate Clauses
…are subordinate clauses that have an adverbial function (ex. like adverbs, they answer questions such as How? When? and Why? ) … Relative clauses introduce relative pronouns Adverbial clauses  subordinators (single words =when, since, while, and because, as well as multiwords = as soon as. Adverbial clauses also lack subordinators = Free adjuncts

3 Subordinators? Subordinators establish the relationship between the events or conditions in the subordinate clause and those in the main clause. Main clause Adverbial Subordinate Clause ↓ ↓ Ex. I was tired when I left school

4 adverbial subordinate clauses
Form Adverbial subordinate clauses usually have an overt subject and a verb or a modal A main clause “independent clause”  a group of words = subject and a verb Ex. I ( subject) sneeze ( verb) Subordinate clauses cannot stand alone. **Ex. Whenever ( subordinator) I ( subject) see (verb) your cat. *( subordinate clauses can only have a relationship with a main clause when connected with a subordinator)

5 When we connect a main clause and subordinate clause:
Ex Adverbial subordinate clause Main Clause sub S V S V ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ A. Whenever I see your cat, I sneeze. Main Clause Adverbial subordinate clause S V sub S V ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ B. I sneeze whenever I see your cat. *** Most adverbial subordinate clauses may follow or precede a main clause, so both examples (A) and (B) are possible.

6 Adverbial Clause I sneeze I see your cat
Example: I sneeze whenever I see your cat. I sneeze I see your cat ***Sentence diagrams can be helpful to understand adverbial clauses.

7 In addition to finite clauses…
We find adverbial subordinate clauses that have an infinitive, a past participle, or present participle instead of an inflected verb That lack overt subjects Examples: We’ll go on Tuesday in order to avoid the Thanksgiving traffic. Although angered by their refusal, he managed not to lose his temper. When visiting Washington, be sure to make a stop at the Library of Congress. ***Notice that in each case there is an implied subject- the subject of the main clause (we, he, you)

8 Meaning Adverbial subordinate clauses are classified into different groups according to the relation expressed by the subordinator. Main types of adverbial subordinate clauses: Time Manner Cause ( purpose or reason) Result Concession Condition

9 Some adverbial subordinate clauses are equivalent to prepositional phrases.
Some subordinators (after, before, until) are also prepositions that are heads of prepositional phrases with the same meaning. Example: Adverbial subordinate clause Main Clause ↓ ↓ After she had finished dinner, she called him. Prepositional Phrase Main Clause ↓ ↓ After dinner, she called him.

10 Clause of time Temporal clauses Subordinators used  after as
as soon as before once since until when whenever while. They establish a time sequence relationship between the events or conditions in the main and the subordinate clauses. … After…. Main Clause Adverbial subordinate clause ↓ ↓ I will go see him after I have registered The action will occur prior to the action in the main clause. ***note: prepositional phrase 2nd 1st

11 time As… As soon as/ once… before…
Different subordinators establish different time sequence relationships. As… Action that is in the progress at the time that the event in the main clause occurs or occur simultaneously with it. A. He called as I was driving. As soon as/ once… Action that occurs right before the main clause action is carried out. A. I’ll finish the paper as soon as I have cleaned up this mess. before… Action occurs after the action in the main clause ( also a preposition = before five p.m./ noon A. He voted before he came to work. B. Before he left the room, he checked to see if his tie was straight.

12 time once… *** note: it acts like subordinator “after” On/upon …
Action that occurs prior to the main clause action. ( interchangeable with as soon as) A. We’ll invite you over once we are settled in. B. We’ll invite you over as soon as we are settled in. *** note: it acts like subordinator “after” If once is followed by be and a prepositional phrase, the clause subject and be can be deleted to produce a shortened clause A. Once they were in bed, they promptly feel asleep. B. Once in bed, they promptly feel asleep. On/upon … Prepositions that introduce time clauses that have essentially the same meaning as clauses can be introduced by when. On hearing of his death, she suffered a nervous breakdown. When she heard of his death, she suffered a nervous breakdown. Corresponding finite clauses with a subject and a tensed verb are ungrammatical ex. * On she heard of his death, she suffered a nervous breakdown.

13 Time since… Action occurs during a span of time that starts with the point in the adverbial clause. A. Joan has flown over 500 hours (2nd)since she got her pilot’s license. (1st) B. Since reading Dostoyevsky, I’ve been looking for an author I like as much. *** note: since is also a preposition ( e.g. I’ve been here since 2007) until… Designate the end point of an action described in the main clause. A. George worked until he couldn’t stand on his feet anymore. (the point at which George could no longer stand is when the work stopped.) B. They sat and chatted until his brother showed up. (sitting and chatting stops when the brother shows up.) ***note: until is also a preposition (e.g. they danced until midnight)

14 Time When/while… Can both specify a period during which the action in the main clause occurred. A. He ran across the ad when/while he was reading the newspaper. ( the action of running across the ad occurs within the larger period of reading the newspaper.) B. When he regained consciousness, he found himself in a hospital bed. (If the action of the verb in the adverbial clause has a short duration, when means “simultaneously, right after”) C. *While he regained consciousness, he found himself in a hospital bed. * While only introduces clauses that have duration. It cannot be used, as shown by the unacceptability.

15 Time whenever… means: “regardless of/ irrespective of the time, no matter what time” He was determined to go to her wedding, whenever it was. He was determined to go to her wedding, no matter/regardless of what time it was scheduled to occur. …Whenever can also be a relative adverb in indefinite free relative clauses. Whenever means “on any occasion, every time.” A. He blushes whenever he sees her. B. He blushes on any occasion/ every time that he sees her. *** note: Many teachers and students may not recognize the subtle significance between the adverbial clause use of whenever and the meaning in indefinite free relative.

16 time: participles after subordinators
While/when and be plus a present or past participle have short forms in which the subject and be are omitted. Present participle *While he was waiting for the bus, he read the newspaper. B. While waiting for the bus, he read the newspaper. Past participle A. *When he was asked to take on a larger teaching load, he refused. B. When asked to take on a larger teaching load, he refused. Same for subordinators  after, before, and since. They have a present participle an no overt subject. After studying for 13 hours, he collapsed. Before leaving for lunch, she signed the papers. Since leaving the firm, she has set up her own business and is doing very well. ( they have a structure that is much closer to that of a prepositional phrase) ***note: these do not seem to correspond to longer versions with the subject and be omitted  While waiting for the bus, he read the newspaper. Ex. *Since she was leaving the firm ( does not correspond). Since she left the firm.

17 Time: participles after subordinators
We can substitute a noun phrase for the words following after, before, and since, as the sentence pairs demonstrate. After studying for 13 hours, he collapsed. After the exam, he collapsed. Before leaving for lunch, she signed the papers. Before lunch, she signed the papers. With regards to adverbial clauses with subordinators such as as soon as, when, and while, words following the subordinator cannot be replaced by a noun phrase. A. While waiting for the bus, he read the newspaper. B. * While the wait, he read the newspaper. ***note: this test indicates that after, before, and since are prepositions.

18 Clauses of Manner Introduce a set of compound subordinators  as if and as though. As if/ as though… ( they answer questions posed with how.) Example: A. They were treated as if/as though they were citizens of the United States. **How were they treated? Inserting a pronoun that matches the main clause subject and would between as and if. A. They were treated as they would be if they were citizens of the U.S. The preposition like, which means “similar to” (e.g. John is like his brother), is often substituted for the subordinator as if ( spoken American English). A. They were treated like they were citizens of the United States.

19 Clauses of Cause Answer a “why” question. Types of clauses of Cause
Purpose Avoidance Reason A. I got up early so I would get to the airport on time. (states the clause of purpose- implies some intention or plan by the subject of the main clause.) B. I got up early because the birds were making so much noise outside. ( states the clause of reason. They don’t do have any intention or a plan by the subject of the main clause. ) *** note: Both statements answer the question “Why did you get up early?”:

20 Clause of Purpose  so and in order introduce purpose clauses
A. I got up early in order to get to work on time. (in order is followed by an infinitive.) In order can be omitted; it becomes an adjunct of purpose. … A. I got up early to get to work on time. In order also introduces clauses that follow that and usually, a modal + a bare infinitive. A. She decided to postpone her trip a few days in order that she might have enough time to finish writing her homework. … so… A. I got up early so I wouldn’t be late. So is often optionally followed by that. I got up early so that I wouldn't be late. ( the phrase could be with or without that.) these finite clauses with so (that) often have a modal such as can or could. I sent everyone an so (that) we could meet. So can be followed by as and introduce an infinitive purpose clause. I sent everyone an so as to be sure of when to meet.

21 Clause of Avoidance  the main clause is expressing avoidance from a probable unwanted outcome in the adverbial clause. before… Directive Avoidance ↓ ↓ [Step away from the machine] {before you get hurt. } (before can also be used in directives that imply the need for avoidance.) ***note: before is also used in time clauses. Meaning of purpose clause with so that is similar to avoidance. Step away from the machine so that you won’t get hurt. lest… Bare infinitive verbs generally are in sentences that use lest; they express the idea of avoidance He quickly ejected the CD lest they discover he had been copying the data onto it. ***note: Most native speakers don’t use lest because it’s outdated and it’s rarely used. for fear … Implies avoidance. Optionally followed by that + modal OR of + present participle. He never joined in for fear that he would be ridiculed. He never joined in for fear of being ridiculed.

22 Clause of Reason  because, for, inasmuch as, seeing as/that, and since.
Do not imply intent by the speaker. Main Clause [She couldn’t sleep ] {because /as /for there was too much noise coming from the street. } { Inasmuch as/ Seeing that /Since you have apologized,} [I’ll consider the matter closed. ] ***note: clauses with for must appear after the main clause. All other subordinators can appear before or after the main clause. As is mostly used in time clauses (it also appears in reason clauses as it is usually more frequently used in British English than in American English. Seeing can stand alone or with that or as ( dialect possibly affecting the choice) Ex. Seeing as/that you have already done a lot of work on this project, you might as well finish it.

23 Clauses of result Introduced by the conjunction so or idiomatic expression with the result. It had rained heavily the night before, so (that) the track was covered with water. He’s lived a very frugal life, with the result that he now has a lot of money. ***note: that may or may not follow so or with the result. ( so (that) can also introduce purpose clauses. ) Result and purpose clauses can be distinguished by syntactic tests and intonation. *A result clause with so (that) cannot follow a main clause  then it places the result before the cause. Cause Result ↓ ↓ It rained last night, so (that )the track was covered with water. *So (that) the track was covered with water, it rained last night. *A purpose clause with so that can follow the main clause. He got up earlier so that he could go running. So that he could go running, he got up early.

24 In order to can be replaced by so that in a purpose clause ( doesn’t change meaning)
He left early in order not to be late for work on his first day. He left early so that he wouldn’t be late for work on his first day. *In a result clause, in order to cannot be replaced (ungrammatically wrong or change meaning of the sentence) It had rained heavily the night before, so (that) the track was covered with water. * It rained last night in order to the track was covered with water. Result clauses with so (that) also have falling intonation + a small pause before the so (* not in purpose clauses) He had just cashed his paycheck[pause], so he had more than enough money to pay the bill. (Result) He had cashed his paycheck so that he could pay the bill. (Purpose)

25 Clauses of concession Concessive clauses express a contrast with the main clause  contrast clauses (in ESL/EFL textbooks) Subordinators  although, even (though), whereas, and while. Tom doesn’t speak Spanish although he grew up in Mexico. The sentence on the main clause is unexpected. We would expect Tom to speak Spanish if he grew up in Mexico. Important: the truth of the concessive clause would lead a person to expect that the main clause would be false. The subordinating clause can also be followed by the main clause Although he grew up in Mexico, Tom doesn’t speak Spanish. The subordinator though alternates with although. ( native speakers  use though - more formal) When even is before though, the sentence in the main clause seems more surprising or unexpected. Even though he had excellent athletic ability, access to the best coaches and equipment, and trained for years, he never really developed into a competitive athlete.

26 Clauses introduced by while and whereas express a contrast.
While the salad was tasty, the main course was rather bland. Whereas the salad was tasty, the main course was rather bland. While/whereas V.S. Although/ (even) though Express contrast Main clause might be unexpected *** whereas cannot always be used to replace although. *Whereas he grew up in Mexico, he doesn’t speak Spanish. A clause can be omitted and shortened if it has a subject and be using subordinators although, though, or while. Although/Though/ While it was expensive, it was not particularly well made. Although/Though/ While expensive, it was not particularly well made. Prepositions like despite and in spite of (prepositional collocation) followed by the fact and a that clause can be used in clauses of concession  In spite of the fact that she grew up in Paris, she doesn’t speak French. Despite the fact that she really didn’t like him, she decided to marry him. Despite and in spite of also introduce clauses beginning with a present participle In spite of/ despite having grown up in Paris, she doesn’t speak French.

27 Let’s practice

28 Free adjuncts Supplementive clauses  have adverbial clauses that are loosely tied to the main clause and don’t have a subordinator. Main clause precede by a free adjunct. Adverbial clause Main Clause ↓ ↓ Waiting for the bus, he read a newspaper. ***note: looseness of the tie is semantic since, as we have seen, subordinators clarify the relationship between the main and subordinate clause. Free adjuncts are used mostly in written English. In fiction, newspapers reports, and lesser extent, in academic writing.

29 Form  characteristics of free adjuncts
Not introduced by a subordinator as regular subordinate clauses Don’t have present participle No overt subject ( most of the time the missing subject is felt to be identical to the main clause subject) Go before or follow the main clause. There is a falling intonation and a pause ( use commas in writing) Backing out of the parking space, he bumped into a passing car. The train stopped suddenly, throwing some of the passengers out of their seats.

30 Meaning Relationship between Free adjuncts and main clauses are largely adverbial. Free adjuncts also answer the questions how, when, or why. Since free adjuncts don’t have subordinators to specify a relationship to the main clause, it’s easy to paraphrase a sentence with a free adjunct with more than one subordinator. Often the possible meanings of a specific adjunct in its context are fairly restricted. Types of adverbial relationships (between free adjuncts and main clauses) Time relationship Several other types

31 Time relationship Most answer the question when posed about in the main clause. The action in the main clause occurs at a time relative to the event that is in the free adjunct. Two types of temporal relationships: Concurrent action Sequential action Concurrent action… Happens when the main clause action goes on while the action in the adjunct is happening. Driving through the countryside, Alvin gazed upon countless fruit trees that were in full bloom. ** drive and gaze are activity verbs: they have inherent duration that potentially can go on indefinitely. The main clause action, gazing, is going on concurrently to the action of driving. Answer the question: When did Alvin gaze upon the countless fruit trees?

32 Subordinators while and as have an ongoing action.
The relationship of the free adjunct to the main clause in… Driving through the countryside, Alvin gazed upon countless fruit trees that were in full bloom. Can be paraphrased with subordinators while/as … While/As (he was) driving through the countryside, Alvin gazed upon countless fruit trees that were in full bloom. Concurrent action can also express adjuncts that have stative verbs  also tells time. Lying between the satin sheets of her bed, Veronica reflected on the joys of being fabulously wealthy. ***note: free adjunct has the stative verb lie and the main clause. The action of reflecting occurs during the state denoted in the free adjunct, and a paraphrase with while and as. While/As she lay between the satin sheets of her bed, Veronica reflected on the joys of being fabulously wealthy.

33 … Sequential action… “time relationship” Main clause  free adjunct.
The free adjunct and the main clause contain achievement or accomplishment verbs. The action in the main clause is seen as the second of two actions that occur in succession. Opening the drawer, he took out the manuscript. Or adding conjunction and followed by then : He opened the drawer and (then) took out the manuscript. ***note: different paraphrases express the idea of successive actions Using and (then) works perfect because the action in the clause has a short duration.

34 Reaching the river, they pitched camp for the night.
The verb in the free adjunct (reaching) is a change-of-state, rather than punctual, achievement verb; however, a period of time is involved. Can also be possible to paraphrase  As soon as they reached the river, they pitched camp for the night. When they reached the river, they pitched camp for the night. Upon reaching the river, they pitched camp for the night. ***note: subordinators as soon as, when, and upon are possible because of an achievement verb that involves a longer duration prior to the end point. OR They reached the river, and (then) pitched camp for the night.

35 A sequential action happens with a common type of free adjunct beginning with having + past participle. Having considered the entrances and escape routes, Adam decided he must rent the lower flat too… Since the verb is in the perfect form, the free adjunct denotes an action that happened before the action in the main clause. ***A paraphrase that expresses the relationship between the free adjunct and the main clause: Having considered the entrances and escape routes, Adam decided he must rent the lower flat too… *** could use subordinators after or as soon as. After he had considered the entrances and escape routes, Adam decided he must… As soon as he had considered the entrances and escape routes, Adam decided he must…

36 Other relationships Free adjuncts can also interpret  Reason… Reason
Instrumental Conditional ***all have a relationship with the main clause Reason… Can express reason for the main clause action. Not wanting to draw attention to himself, Pierre began to move back into the crowd that was gathering at the scene of the accident. * Pierre’s desire not to draw attention to himself was the reason for his action of moving back into the crowd. Such interpretations are common when free adjuncts have stative verbs of cognition such as believe, desire, dislike, doubt, feel, guess, know, prefer, see, suppose, think, and understand Or Stative verbs of desire such as desire, want, and wish.

37 Using stative verbs of cognition and desire, the adjunct answers a why question about the main clause, and can be paraphrased with adverbial subordinators of reason  because, and since. Because/ Since he didn’t want to draw attention to himself, Pierre began to move back into the crowd that was gathering at the scene of the accident. * Why did Pierre began to move back into the crowd that was gathering at the scene of the accident? Instrumental… With the free adjunct expressing the means for the main clause action. Twisting her body sideways, Susan freed herself from his grip. ***(twisting her body is Susan’s means for freeing herself.) The verb in the free adjunct indicates the action that brings the result from the main clause. Answers the how question from the main clause. How did she free herself from his grip? (using the main clause) ***Using a subordinator brings out this interpretation – by…. By twisting her body sideways, she freed herself from his grip.

38 Conditional … Depending on the condition in the free adjunct, we find the truth in the main clause. The free adjunct verbs are assume, grant, consider, or suppose. Assuming that newspaper accounts are an accurate reflection of public opinion, Chicagoans must have been alarmed at the rise of property-related crimes over the past year. *** ( inference that Chicagoans are experiencing alarm is dependent on newspaper accounts being an accurate reflection of public opinion.) This relationship is lead by the presence of the main clause of the modal must in its indirect meaning. The sentence can be paraphrased with the subordinator if ... If one/ we assume (s) that newspaper accounts are an accurate reflection of public opinion, Chicagoans must have been….. ***the missing subject of the free adjunct is one or we, rather than the main clause subject.

39 Use of free Adjuncts In sentence-initial position 
Mostly used in writing. They are used depending on the position of the adjunct in relation to the main clause. Used to start a first paragraph of a text, to vividly paint the scene and give a sense of immediacy. And subsequent paragraphs , to link to previous content while introducing a new topic. Like transitional sentences After the main clause  Free adjuncts are used for addition and elaboration – that is , to provide information in addition to, and elaborate on, the content in the main clause. He answered their questions, smiling, rowing, and occasionally laughing heartily.

40 Let’s practice

41 Adverbial Subordinate Clause


Download ppt "Adverbial SUBORDINATE CLAUSE"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google