Presentation on theme: "The Status of Entrepreneurship Education at Institutions of Higher Learning in Southeast Wisconsin Mark Schug Ph.D. October 28, 2009."— Presentation transcript:
The Status of Entrepreneurship Education at Institutions of Higher Learning in Southeast Wisconsin Mark Schug Ph.D. October 28, 2009
Overview Why entrepreneurship is important Design of the study Results Recommendations
Why is Entrepreneurship Education Important? Research points to the importance of innovation and entrepreneurship as drivers of regional economic growth and competitive advantage.
Regions with Entrepreneurial Activity Have… 58% more wage growth. 109% higher productivity growth. 67% more patents per labor force participant. 63% higher percentage of high-tech establishments. 54% more spending on research and development. 125% employment growth.
Why Entrepreneurship Belongs in College Entrepreneurship is already an expanding area in the college curriculum. Entrepreneurship is viewed as critical to student success in the contemporary global economy.
Why Entrepreneurship Belongs in College Through innovation and commercialization, entrepreneurship is becoming a basic part of what universities themselves do. Entrepreneurship achieves key goals of a quality undergraduate education. Imbedded in many fields of study Integrates theory and practice
Purpose The purpose of this study was to obtain baseline information regarding the status of entrepreneurship programs in colleges and universities in southeastern Wisconsin.
Examination of Other Studies Studies, such as those conducted by faculty at George Washington University, show that the number of courses, concentrations and degrees in the fields of small business management and entrepreneurship grew at a fast pace from 1997 to 2001.
Other Studies This study concluded that the growth of small business management and entrepreneurship courses is not likely to dissipate soon. The study also showed a rise in majors in the field and funding through endowed chairs.
Other Studies A more recent report suggests that most of the new growth in entrepreneurship education is now occurring outside of schools of business.
Other Studies Comprehensive studies have also been conducted in Europe. A survey conducted by the European Union, for example, provided data for 600 higher education institutions. More than half of Europe’s college students do not have access to entrepreneurial education. Much work remains to be done.
Sample We gathered data about existing entrepreneurship courses, programs, and experiences offered on all 20 campuses in the Southeast Wisconsin Private Public Technical Colleges Four-year Colleges Universities
Survey Development A 16-part survey instrument was developed. The instrument was reviewed by four professors. Representatives from all 20 of the colleges and universities in southeastern Wisconsin received an invitation, asking them to participate in the survey, with the survey attached. After follow-up reminders, eventually representatives from all 20 colleges completed the survey.
Curriculum The dominant form of entrepreneurship education in southeastern Wisconsin is the offering of undergraduate courses. Sixteen institutions reported offering undergraduate courses in entrepreneurship. Most are offered in a School of Business or a Department of Business. Course enrollments, however, are relatively small.
Institution UG Courses Number of Courses Department 1. Alverno CollegeYes1Business 2. Cardinal Stritch UniversityYes3Business 3. Carthage CollegeYes16Entrepreneurial Studies in Natural Science 4. Carroll UniversityYes4Business 5. Concordia University WisconsinYes2Business 6. Gateway Technical CollegeYes8 or moreBusiness 7. Marquette UniversityYes8 or moreBusiness 8. Medical College of WisconsinNoNABusiness 9. Milwaukee Area Technical CollegeYes1Business 10. Milwaukee Institute of Art & DesignYes1Fine Arts Table 1: Undergraduate Courses
11. Milwaukee School of EngineeringYes5Business 12. Moraine Park Technical CollegeNoNABusiness 13. Mount Mary CollegeYes1Business 14. UW-MilwaukeeYes8 or moreBusiness 15. UW-ParksideYes4Business 16. UW- Washington CountyNoNA 17. UW-WaukeshaNoNA 18. UW-WhitewaterYes8Business 19. Waukesha County Technical CollegeYes2Business 20. Wisconsin Lutheran CollegeYes1Business TotalsYes = 16 No = 4
Graduate Courses Graduate-level courses in entrepreneurship are offered less often. Concordia University Marquette University Milwaukee School of Engineering UW-Milwaukee UW-Whitewater
Concentrations Twelve institutions offer students an opportunity to study entrepreneurship in some depth. Most often, these concentrations take the form of “areas of emphasis” or “certificate” programs. Eleven of the institutions offered either an area of emphasis and/or a certificate.
Table 2: Concentrations Institution Areas of Emphasis CertificateUG MinorUG Major 1. Alverno CollegeNo 2. Cardinal Stritch UniversityNo 3. Carthage CollegeYesNoYesNo 4. Carroll UniversityYesNoYesNo 5. Concordia University WisconsinNo 6. Gateway Technical CollegeYes No 7. Marquette UniversityNoYesNoYes 8. Medical College of WisconsinNo 9. Milwaukee Area Technical CollegeYes No 10. Milwaukee Institute of Art & DesignNo
Table 2: Concentrations 11. Milwaukee School of EngineeringYes (2)Yes No 12. Moraine Park Technical CollegeYesNo 13. Mount Mary CollegeNo 14. UW-MilwaukeeNoYesNo 15. UW-ParksideNoYesNo 16. UW- Washington CountyNoYesNo 17. UW-WaukeshaNo 18. UW-WhitewaterNo Yes 19. Waukesha County Technical CollegeYesYes (2)No 20. Wisconsin Lutheran CollegeNo TotalsYes = 8 No = 13 Yes = 9 No = 12 Yes = 3 No = 17 Yes = 2 No = 18
Internships Practical experience in business is an important factor in efforts to develop successful entrepreneurs. Relatively few entrepreneurship programs in southeastern Wisconsin include internships in business. Eight institutions offer such programs.
Table 3: Internships InstitutionInternships 1. Alverno CollegeYes 2. Cardinal Stritch UniversityNo 3. Carthage CollegeYes 4. Carroll UniversityYes 5. Concordia University WisconsinNo 6. Gateway Technical CollegeNo 7. Marquette UniversityYes 8. Medical College of WisconsinNo 9. Milwaukee Area Technical CollegeNo 10. Milwaukee Institute of Art & DesignNo
Table 3: Internships 11. Milwaukee School of EngineeringYes 12. Moraine Park Technical CollegeNo 13. Mount Mary CollegeNo 14. UW-MilwaukeeYes 15. UW-ParksideNo 16. UW- Washington CountyNo 17. UW-WaukeshaNo 18. UW-WhitewaterYes 19. Waukesha County Technical CollegeNo 20. Wisconsin Lutheran CollegeYes TotalsYes = 8 No = 12
Student Competitions One low-cost form of entrepreneurship education is to offer business competitions. These competitions can take different forms, depending in part on the sponsoring organization. Examinations: Future Business Leaders of America Community service projects: Students in Free Enterprise Few focus on entrepreneurship as an explicit goal.
Table 4: Student Competitions Institution Student Competition NameNo. of students 1. Alverno CollegeYesStudents in Free Enterprise Cardinal Stritch UniversityYesStudents in Free Enterprise Carthage CollegeNoNA 4. Carroll UniversityYesStudents in Free Enterprise Concordia University WisconsinNoNA 6. Gateway Technical CollegeYesBus Professionals of America DECA Marquette UniversityYesKohler Center for Entrepreneurship: Business- Plan Competition 31 or more 8. Medical College of WisconsinNoNA 9. Milwaukee Area Technical CollegeNoNA 10. Milwaukee Institute of Art & DesignNoNA
Table 4: Student Competitions 11. Milwaukee School of EngineeringYesMSOE Business-Plan Competition Future Business Leaders of America/Phi Beta Lambda Moraine Park Technical CollegeNoNA 13. Mount Mary CollegeNoNA 14. UW-MilwaukeeYesNew Venture Business-Plan Competition 31 or more 15. UW-ParksideNoNA 16. UW Washington CountyNoNA 17. UW-WaukeshaNoNA 18. UW-WhitewaterYesWarhawk Business-Plan Contest Warhawk Elevator Pitch Comp 50 or more Waukesha County Technical CollegeYesWisconsin Marketing and Management Association Wisconsin Lutheran CollegeYesStudents in Free Enterprise1-10 TotalsYes = 10 No = 10
Student Organizations Another low-cost way approach is to establish student organizations. Half of the colleges and universities in southeastern Wisconsin offer business- oriented student organizations. Here, too, few of these organizations focus on entrepreneurship as an explicit goal.
Table 5: Student Organizations Institution Student Organization NameNo. of students 1. Alverno CollegeYesStudents in Free Enterprise Cardinal Stritch UniversityYesStudents in Free Enterprise Carthage CollegeYesEntrepreneurial Studies in Natural Science Carroll UniversityYesStudents in Free Enterprise Concordia UniversityNoNA 6. Gateway Technical CollegeYesBusiness Professionals of America DECA Marquette UniversityYesCollegiate Entrepreneurs at Marquette CEM 31 or more 8. Medical College of WisconsinNoNA 9. Milwaukee Area Technical CollegeNoNA 10. Milwaukee Institute of Art & DesignNoNA
Table 5: Student Organizations 11. Milwaukee School of EngineeringYesMSOE Entrepreneurs Club11-20 Future Business Leaders of America/Phi Beta Lambda Moraine Park Technical CollegeNoNA 13. Mount Mary CollegeNoNA 14. UW-MilwaukeeYesCollegiate Entrepreneur Organization 31 or more 15. UW-ParksideNoReported that it is beginning a Collegiate Entrepreneur Organization NA 16. UW Washington CountyNoNA.NA 17. UW-WaukeshaNoNA 18. UW-WhitewaterYesCollegiate Entrepreneur Organization 31 or more 19. Waukesha County Technical CollegeNoNA 10. Wisconsin LutheranYesStudents in Free Enterprise1-10 TotalsYes = 10 No = 10
Table 6: Technology Transfers and Commercialization Institution Technology Transfers Commercialization 1. Alverno CollegeNo 2. Cardinal Stritch UniversityNo 3. Carthage CollegeNoYes 4. Carroll UniversityNo 5. Concordia University WisconsinYesNo 6. Gateway Technical CollegeNoYes 7. Marquette UniversityNo 8. Medical College of WisconsinYesNo 9. Milwaukee Area Technical CollegeNo 10. Milwaukee Institute of Art & DesignNo
Table 6: Technology Transfers and Commercialization 11. Milwaukee School of EngineeringYes 12. Moraine Park Technical CollegeYesNo 13. Mount Mary CollegeNo 14. UW-MilwaukeeYes 15. UW-ParksideNo 16. UW- Washington CountyNo 17. UW-WaukeshaNo 18. UW-WhitewaterYesNo 19. Waukesha County Technical CollegeNo 20. Wisconsin Lutheran CollegeNo TotalsYes = 6 No = 14 Yes = 4 No = 16
Institutional Support Respondents from two institutions ranked entrepreneurship as a very important institutional goal for administration One respondent ranked it as a very important goal for faculty.
Institutional Support Overall, administrators seemed to be more supportive; about half of them ranked entrepreneurship as very important or important. Faculty members were less supportive; most of them ranked entrepreneurship education as somewhat important or unimportant.
Institutional Support Cross-disciplinary entrepreneurship programs are often regarded as the state-of- the-art in the entrepreneurship education research literature. Six institutions indicated that their efforts were concentrated in one academic unit.
Institutional Support Seven institutions reported that their entrepreneurship programs included two or more units. Recall that most undergraduate courses—the dominant type of entrepreneurship education appearing in this study—were offered in one unit.
Institutional Strengths Institutions identified strengths which they believed they possessed in entrepreneurship education. Many reported that key faculty members, including ad hoc instructors, were an important advantage. One respondent commented that its “core of passionate faculty” was a key strength. Others stressed their experiential focus and their efforts to integrate entrepreneurship across the curriculum.
Institutional Weaknesses Most comments stressed the small size of the campus as a factor making it difficult offer strong, comprehensive programs and attract many students. One respondent commented, for example, that entrepreneurship education had “no champion.” Others stressed insufficient funding and the lack of a formal curriculum.
Next Steps Several respondents gave approximately equal emphasis to these steps: Increase participation in student organizations Increase participation in student competitions Develop concentrations such as an area of emphasis, minor, or major Increase the number of internships
Exemplary Practices Carthage College: Entrepreneurial Studies in the Natural Sciences Program Marquette University: Kohler Center for Entrepreneurship Milwaukee School of Engineering: Uihlein/Spitzer Center for Entrepreneurship
Exemplary Practices University of Wisconsin Milwaukee Sheldon B. Lubar School of Business University of Wisconsin- Whitewater
What Makes for a Successful program? A core of dedicated faculty Close ties to the business community: Endowed chairs Centers Advisory committees Entrepreneurs in residence Depth and breadth
Recommendations 1. Consortium institutions in the region should develop incentives which encourage school administrators and faculty members to participate in local, regional, and national forums focused on entrepreneurship. One goal would be to strengthen participants’ understanding of entrepreneurship as a driver for a strong SE WI regional economy and a second goal would be to foster entrepreneurial offerings across disciplines in academic programs, bringing new excitement and energy to campus life.
Recommendations 2. All institutions should establish or expand student business plan competitions and student organizations that feature entrepreneurship education as a key goal. Activities of this sort provide low-cost means to increase the number of students and faculty involved in entrepreneurship education and experiences
Recommendations 3. Colleges in the region should identify funding sources that enable them to build upon their programming. A goal would be for all 20 institutions to not only offer undergraduate courses in entrepreneurship education, but to develop means by which students may specialize in entrepreneurship through an area of concentration, a certificate program, or an academic minor or major.
Recommendations 4. Entrepreneurship education is enhanced by strong connections and partnerships with the business community. All 20 institutions should develop and expand internships, adjunct faculty and other entrepreneur focused programs which engage the business community with their institutions.