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ObjectivesPurposesRisk Areas Practices Effective Community Supervision in Drug Court Additional Risks Definition Presentation By: Mack Jenkins, M.S. Chief.

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Presentation on theme: "ObjectivesPurposesRisk Areas Practices Effective Community Supervision in Drug Court Additional Risks Definition Presentation By: Mack Jenkins, M.S. Chief."— Presentation transcript:

1 ObjectivesPurposesRisk Areas Practices Effective Community Supervision in Drug Court Additional Risks Definition Presentation By: Mack Jenkins, M.S. Chief Probation Officer, San Diego County Probation Department Summary

2 Session Objectives 1.Define community supervision in a drug court context. 2.Identify goals of community supervision in a Drug Court. 3.Identify effective community supervision practices.

3 Drug Court Community Supervision Defined Community supervision is the effort to proactively monitor the behavior and program compliance of a drug court participant outside of the court room. Community supervision is an element of case management services delivered to a drug court participant. In drug court, a primary goal of community supervision is to facilitate behavior change instead of mere compliance monitoring.

4 Purposes of Community Supervision 1.Protect Public Safety 2.Deter non-compliant behavior 3.Provide accountability for the participant 4.Support progress of the participant 5.Detection and early intervention 6.Serve as an adjunct to treatment 7.Extend the team into the community

5 (1) Protecting Public Safety Drug offenders often commit offenses to support drug habits Users are more likely than non-users to commit crimes. Drug offenders commit a disproportionate among of property crime. Effective supervision interdicts criminal behavior.

6 (2) Deter Misconduct A primary goal of effective supervision is to create a conscientiousness of being “watched” by the drug court team. Random and frequent contacts are intended to cause the participant to think twice about engaging in behavior that is not conducive to recovery.

7 (3) Accountability Ensure participant complies with probation terms and/or program rules. Ensure participant attends and is engaged in treatment. Application of “coerced” treatment

8 (4) Support Progress of the Participant Supervision provides the opportunity for an immediate response to both positive and negative participant behavior. Using incentives (verbal praise, tokens, certificates, etc.) to reinforce desired behavior and behavior change. Regular supervision contacts can help support recovery tools, and help the participant resist the urge to use.

9 (5) Early Detection and Intervention Supervision can interrupt the relapse process through; o Knowledge of a participants relapse prevention plan o Recognizing an offenders personal trigger o Prompt sanctioning of misbehavior o Re-directing the participant to treatment

10 (6) Adjunct to Treatment An important role for supervision is to share information from the field seamlessly with treatment and the entire team. A basic function is to confirm and inform. Identify discrepancies in information. Support treatment plan goals.

11 (7) Extend the Team into the Community Absent effective community supervision, a drug court team is operating in the blind. The supervision officer can be a key in presenting a “united” front to the participant.

12 Supervision Issues 1.Risk Areas for Offenders in Drug Courts 2.Behaviors to Target 3.Indicators of Drug Use

13 (1) Risk Areas for Offenders in Drug Courts Eight risk factors have been shown to predict recidivism among individuals under community corrections supervision. Andrews and Bonta summarize these risk factors as: 1. History of Criminal Behavior (prior interactions with the CJ system) 2. Anti-social personality (antagonism, impulsivity, risk taking) 3. Pro-criminal attitudes (criminal thinking) 4. Anti-Social associates 5. Poor use of leisure time/recreational time 6. Substance abuse 7. Problematic circumstances at home (low caring or supervision, high neglect or abuse, homelessness) 8. Problematic circumstances at work or school (limited education, unstable employment history) Problematic circumstances at school or work (for example: limited education, unstable employment history)

14 (2) Behaviors to Target Drug use Failure to attend treatment Associating with anti-social/criminal friends Vagrancy Violation of program rules Manipulation

15 - Failure to report/missing appointments. - Change in normal appearance, unkempt disheveled. - Change in temperament -unusually quiet or nervous conversation. - Disassociation with pro-social friends, i.e. non-using roommate moves out. - Unusual or inappropriate behavior reported by family or other association. (3) Indicators of Drug Use

16 Effective Community Supervision Practices 1.Assessment and Re-assessment 2.Supervision Strategy 3.Rapport Building 4.Home Visits 5.Periodic Searches 6.Drug Testing 7.Specialized Terms/Program Rules

17 (1) Assessment/Reassessment May use an actuarial risk/needs assessment. Identify risk to recidivate and criminogenic needs. Become familiar with criminal and treatment history. Assessment should include strength areas. Review arrest reports. Assessment information should drive the case plan. Assessment should be on going and at regular intervals.

18 (1) Assessment Accurate assessment is a key to effective supervision. Assess for: o Risk (Crimenogenic Risk) - Crimenogenic needs o Need (Clinical Needs) - Addict or abuser?

19 (1) Assessment Drug Offenders will fall into the following categories: o High Risk/High Needs o High Risk/Low Needs o Low Risk/High Needs o Low Risk/Low Needs

20 (1) Case Planning Based on Assessment Info High Risk/High Needs o Intensive supervision, frequent contacts o Treatment by licensed or certified clinicians o CBT programs o Vocational training, life skills, literacy programs, etc. High Risk/ Low Needs o Intensive supervision o CBT o Vocational training, life skills, literacy programs, etc.

21 (1) Case Planning Based on Assessment Info Low Risk/High Needs o Moderate supervision o CBT o Programs to teach productive skills Low Risk/Low Needs o Prevention o Diversion

22 (2) Supervision Strategy Supervision strategy should be designed to achieve goals of supervision. It should include; Frequency Location Mode ( face to face, telephone, collateral, etc.) Structuring participant free time. Require the participant to maintain a daily planner. The planer should include scheduled activities between contacts. Use the planner as a guide for field contacts.

23 (3) Rapport Building Set the tone for the relationship Be respectful Be direct Be honest Don’t argue Roll with resistance Develop discrepancy

24 (3) Rapport Building Don’t treat them like irreparable drug addicts. Offer verbal praise and positive reinforcement for desired behaviors and progress. Encourage them to step out of the drug users world.

25 (4) Home Visits Announced and unannounced Based on assessment information and supervision strategy Vary the times, non governmental hours Engage the family Evaluate condition of the home Drug test Support compliance and positive progress

26 (5) Searches The ability to conduct searches is determined by statue, type of court, nature of the court order, waivers and consents to search. Clearly state the provisions in program rules. Should be done randomly. Look for drugs and signs of drug use paraphernalia, etc. Periodic searches serve to enforce program rules and sobriety.

27 (6) Drug Testing Drug testing should be randomized to the maximum extent possible. The frequency of testing should be tied to the drug of choice used by the target population, phase requirements. If practicable, use multiple specimens (urine, saliva, hair, etc.) All urine drug tests should be OBSERVED. Plan to test during home visits, office visits and court appearances.

28 (7) Specialized Terms/Program Rules Tailor program terms/rules to address the needs and behaviors of an individual participant, or the target population in general. Consider: o Curfews o Association restrictions o No alcohol o No prescription medication with out approval o Area restrictions (i.e. high drug areas, “hang out” areas, etc.) Don’t have rules that you cannot effectively enforce.

29 Additional Supervision Issues 1.Core Correctional Practices for a Community Supervision Officer 2.Competency Areas for Community Supervision Officers 3.Working with Treatment

30 (1) Core Correctional Practices for a Community Supervision Officer Core Correctional Practices o Effective use of authority o Prosocial modeling o Effective reinforcement and approval o Problem solving o Relationship skills o Structured skill building

31 (2) Competency Areas for Community Supervision Officers Supervision officer should be knowledgeable: o Addiction o Psychopharmacology o Stages of Change o Relapse o Motivational interviewing/Engagement Skills o Field safety skills o Working in an interdisciplinary team

32 (3) Working with Treatment Relation must be as seamless as possible. Establish and maintain regular communication. Ensure appropriate release of information forms are place. Have a general understanding of the treatment modality ( harm reduction vs. abstinence). Agree on the information to be exchanged, i.e. drug tests, general progress in treatment, criminal history, etc.). Must present a “united front” to the a participant.

33 Summary In Drug Court, community supervision is a part of the team effort of facilitating behavior change. Utilize a range of practices to ensure accountability and support recovery. Be familiar with the target population. Develop a supervision strategy that targets the behaviors associated with recidivism. Enhance skills in key competency areas.

34 Contact Information Mack Jenkins, M.S. Chief Probation Officer, San Diego County Probation Phone: (858) 514-3200 Email:

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