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Policing within the EU: Social Control at what cost? Prof. John Winterdyk Director: Centre for Criminology and Justice Research Adjunct.

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Presentation on theme: "Policing within the EU: Social Control at what cost? Prof. John Winterdyk Director: Centre for Criminology and Justice Research Adjunct."— Presentation transcript:

1 Policing within the EU: Social Control at what cost? Prof. John Winterdyk Director: Centre for Criminology and Justice Research Adjunct Prof: St Thomas Un., and Polytechnic of Namibia With assistance from: Ms. Crystal Hincks Date/Location: October 22 – 23, 2010 University of Luxembourg Centre for Criminology and Justice Research

2 Overview “it is better to prevent crimes than to punish them” C. Beccaria (1763:93) Qualifiers Crime as a social construct Crime control Models of policing Pluralization of policing Policing in post 9-11 Summary 2Centre for Criminology and Justice Research

3 Qualifier Social scientist –Evidence based dec-making Critical realist Capacity over more order 3Centre for Criminology and Justice Research

4 Crime as a Social Construct Two fundamental guiding principles to a harmonious society: –“Do all you say you agree to do” –“Do not encroach on other persons or their property” Natural law vs. political law Past: –Domain of cannon law or civil law (esp. laws of tort) 4Centre for Criminology and Justice Research

5 Crime Control ‘war against terror taking toll on human rights’ – P. Delean ‘10 Utilitarian vs. vested interest groups “contrology” J. Ditton Crime rates Financial burden Erosion of community support Need for ‘more order’ Forced compliance doesn’t work! 5Centre for Criminology and Justice Research

6 Crime Control Cont. Not serve as defenders of the State but as guardians of human rights – research: biased and discretionary enforcement (official statistics) Quinney ‘86 –Social injury (e.g., human rights violations, imperialism, sexism, racism, poverty, state terrorism) DeKeserdy et al. ’05 –Transnational policing in the EU – justified and legitimated Form of deviance Control…subjective and/or political manipulation Braithwaite ’89 “abolitionism” K. Stenson ‘95 6Centre for Criminology and Justice Research

7 MODELS OF POLICING Traditional Model- order/maintenance role; policing was informal and based on conflict resolution; minimal interaction with community: a ‘supply’ and ‘demand’ approach – NO crime prevention…. <15% dealing with crime! (Sewell ‘85) Problem Solving Police: Proactive – crime prevention… detectives, investigation, geographic profile, etc. Three Rs: random patrol, reactive investigation, rapid response; SARA (Scan, Analyze, Response, and Assessment) vs. CAPRA (Client, Acquire, Partnerships, Response, and Assessment). Community Oriented Policing: Highly interactive with community ; 3 Ps of community policing: public involvement, problem solving, and prevention of crime. Barlow & Barlow, Centre for Criminology and Justice Research

8 Productivity of the Police: Suspects per 100 Police Officers Finland2692Isreal360 USA2260Macedonia, FYR353 Canada1043Slovenia332 Germany872Slovakia251 Netherlands845Italy249 Greece769Estonia225 Austria684Rep. of Moldova201 Norway684Croatia173 England & Wales 558Cyprus137 Portugal475Lithuania132 Hungary415Ukraine122 Poland404Spain102 Romania404Latvia100 France385Kazakhstan82 Sweden371Russia79 Ireland366Armenia53 8

9 Citizen Evaluation of Police Performance 1 st Quartile Poor Evaluation Kazakhstan, Russia, Georgia, Latvia, Romania, Ukraine, Estonia, Belarus, Lithuania 3 rd Quartile Medium Evaluation Spain, Macedonia, Slovakia, Malta, Slovenia, Finland, Belgium, Switzerland 4 th Quartile High Evaluation France, Ireland, Netherlands, Sweden, England and Wales, Denmark, Canada, USA, Scotland 2 nd Quartile Medium Evaluation Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Poland, Czech. Rep., Italy, Portugal, Austria, Albania 9Centre for Criminology and Justice Research

10 Relative efficiency: –Crime prevention –Crime control –Conflict resolution –General services – traffic, PR with public… –Police administration – integrity, leadership –? Productivity (complex and complicated) –Criminal investigation (12 city study) “left much to be desired”! (Sewell ‘92) 10Centre for Criminology and Justice Research

11 PLURALIZATION OF POLICING Governments no longer have a monopoly on policing (“high policing”) Private security and consulting companies are growing at 2-3x the rate of police forces (“low policing” Brodeur ‘83) Increase in citizen policing, special constables, peace officers, auxiliaries, and crime prevention agencies have reduced the need for more sworn officers Growth of civilian positions have surpassed officers 2:1 – 1 civilian member for every 2.5 officers 11

12 CANADAGERMANYFINLANDUNITED STATES POPULATION33,487,20882,110,0975,250,275307,212,123 # OF POLICE OFFICERS 62,461250,2848,312683,396 RATIO OF POLICE TO CITIZENS : 1, : 1, : 1, : 1,000 POLICING BUDGET EUR 7 billion EUR 362 million EUR million EUR 70 billion POLICE MODELCommunityParamilitaryCommunity Crime Rate Per 100,000 8, , , , PROFILE OF COUNTRIES for 2006 Source: UNODC (2007) Centre for Criminology and Justice Research

13 Belief in Police Efficiency 13Centre for Criminology and Justice Research

14 Percentage of people who reported paying brides ( ), by service ‘09 Global Corruption Barometer Centre for Criminology and Justice Research14

15 Hi-lites for reform Does low enforcement work? –Do they provide value for our taxes? (Waller ‘09) –When police strike – predatory crimes increase (robbery/assaults) –Clinton admin 20% increase in policing! Impact…none More police, more professionalism, more power, more… is NOT better –65% respond to 911 calls! –Investigation 20%... $13B annually –Problem oriented policing …. Shows promise and crime prevention through social development Refocus on risk factors and protective factors Shift 3-5% of LE budget to prevention (risk factors) and victim support !! US Gallup Pools show since 1990…public favors ‘education and jobs’ over ‘police and prisons’ 15Centre for Criminology and Justice Research

16 POLICING IN POST 9-11 TIMES 16 Terrorist attacks are both acts of war and also crimes Prevention of the next terrorist attack is priority number one for governments Stopping large scale attacks are the public safety imperative, even if it means risking the individuals that police typically serve Advocates of stronger immigration laws are crying for local police to become involved in enforcing immigration law Police do not want this role Would result in a major setback in the progress of community policing over the past two decades Police would wind up on the wrong side of the immigrant communities would be a mistake Centre for Criminology and Justice Research

17 Police would require greater power and authority –T–That power, meant to be used for investigating and stopping terrorism, would be used in investigations of other crimes. –T–This power comes attached to the expectation that it will also be used to police immigration –O–One concern is the need for more manpower and resources –S–Slippery slope of human rights – UK law school study 17Centre for Criminology and Justice Research

18 Costs of Crime Fighting in Canada Direct cost of the CJS- EUR 20 billion –Includes policing, courts, corrections –2x more than unemployment –3x more than childcare –2x more than seniors pensions –Tax-payers 7X more to achieve 10% reduction vs. SD Indirect cost of the CJS- EUR 25 billion –Costs incurred by victims; insurance, replacement, medical system, lawyers, lost wages Is it more cost effective to prevent crime and/or investigate? Centre for Criminology and Justice Research18

19 Offending and Victimization is Predictable for Groups (not individuals) 5% of youth account for 55% of offences –The 5% experience more risk factors- poverty, ineffective parenting, dropping out of school 4% of victims account for 44% of victimization –The 4% lead life routines that increase risk, such as not guarding goods, vulnerable to opportunity, close to offenders “Hot Spot” locations exist for drugs and other offences –“Hot Spots” concentrate offenders and victims geographically Centre for Criminology and Justice Research19 Source: Waller, 2003

20 Summary “we are sadly not close to solving the global problems of unsafety” B. Holtmann ‘10 Focus not on just reducing crime rates/investigation Improve quality of life/community capacity –Build trust between pop. and CJS –Protective factors promote +ve alternate life-choices Prevention polices…’backseat’ to public safety policies –‘02 UN Guidelines for CP Social, economic, health & educational development Locally based CP Situational Reduction of recidivism SROI…$1 prevention savings up to $10 intervention! Centre for Criminology and Justice Research20

21 Thank You/Merci/Danke 21Centre for Criminology and Justice Research


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