Presentation on theme: "Supporting Learning Process: Content Based instructions Course books Computer Assisted Language Learning Learning Styles Learners’ autonomy in the classroom."— Presentation transcript:
Supporting Learning Process: Content Based instructions Course books Computer Assisted Language Learning Learning Styles Learners’ autonomy in the classroom Class room based assessment
Review of Lecture 25 Types of language tests Ways of describing tests Evaluating the usefulness of language tests Overview of common language tests: TOEFL, TOEIC, IELTS, and CAEL Impact of testing on learning and teaching Critical use of language tests Testing Questions
Content Based instructions Lecture # 26 What is Content Based Instruction? CBI refers to the teaching of language through exposure to the content that is interesting and relevant to learners. This content has several purposes: It provides a rich context for the language classroom, allowing the teacher to present and explain specific language features. Additionally, it provides for what Stephen Krashen (1985) calls comprehensible input.
Background to Content Based Instruction Basing language teaching on content is not a new idea. CBI first appeared in the mid 1980s with the publication of Bernard Mohan’s work, language and content. Brinton, Snow and Wesche, 1989 identified several prototype forms of CBI-namely theme based language instruction, sheltered content instruction and adjunct instruction (university level ESL students are enrolled in paired or “adjuncted” English and psychology classes. All these prototype forms are real life situations. Differences among these models are next slide
Background to Content Based Instruction Population/setting- Theme based instruction is the most generally applicable, it is appropriate at virtually any level of language learning and in a wide variety of settings. Sheltered and adjunct instruction are restricted in their applicability. Sheltered courses are typically found in middle schools and high schools where large population of learners receive subject matter instruction in a language other than their first language. Adjunct courses are found in settings where students are studying language as well as subject matter, such as high schools, colleges and universities.
Background to Content Based Instruction Lesson Focus Focus on language in theme based instruction On content as in sheltered instruction On both as in adjunct instruction. Selection of Content Content of language class often overlaps with that of students’ subject matter. Degree of Faculty Coordination- Adjunct instruction is quite different from the other two models in this respect since it requires the systematic coordination of the language and content instructors.
Background to Content Based Instruction A recent innovation in CBI is sustained –content language teaching (SCLT) SCLT involves a focus on a single content area or carrier topic. Murphy and Stoller, 2001,p.3) According to Murphy and Stoller, the use of sustained content simulates the conditions and demands of the subject matter classroom, it allows language leaners to more deeply engage the content, in the process acquiring the academic vocabulary and language skills needed for the mainstream…. SCLT does not require coordination of the language teacher with a content area expert.
Principles for content-based Instruction Base instructional decisions on content rather than language criteria. What to teach? How to order these items? In GTM, it was thought that certain language items (simple present tense) were more easily acquired than others, thus decision was made to include these items in the beginning….. CBI takes a rather radical departure from this approach. It allows the choice of content to dictate or influence the selection and sequencing of language items.
Principles for content-based Instruction Integrate Skills CBI practitioners use an integrated skills approach to language teaching, covering all four skills as well as vocabulary and grammar.
Principles for content-based Instruction Involve students actively in all phases of the learning process CBI classroom is learner rather than teacher centered. In such class rooms, students learn through doing and are actively engaged in the learning process; they do not depend on the teacher to direct all learning or to be the source of all information. Central to CBI is the belief that learning occurs not only through exposure to the teacher’s input, but also through peer input and interactions. Accordingly students assume active social roles in the classroom that involve interactive learning, negotiation, information gathering and co- construction of meaning.
Principles for content-based Instruction Choose content for its relevance to students’ lives, interests and or academic goals. Discussion……………………..
Principles for content-based Instruction Select authentic texts and tasks A key component of CBI is authenticity both of the texts used in the classroom and the tasks that learners are asked to perform. What is authenticity? Hutchinson and Waters define authentic texts as those that are “ not originally constructed for language teaching purposes” Thus, an extract from a content area text book, a cartoon, the lyrics to a popular song, or a short story would all qualify as authentic texts..
Principles for content-based Instruction Draw Overt attention to language Features: The purpose of CBI is to express learners to authentic input with the goal of their being able to use language for communicative purposes. Texts form the primary input source in the CBI classroom, with additional input provided by the teacher and peers. All of these provide comprehensible input. However, CBI departs from some other approaches to language teaching in its belief that comprehensible input alone will not lead to successful language acquisition.
Classroom Techniques and Tasks in CBI classroom The techniques and tasks used in the CBI classroom are familiar ones to anyone who practices CLT. Here are some of the techniques and activities commonly found in CBI classrooms. Pair and Group Work are the hallmark of the communicative classroom. In CBI, they entail the discussion or exchange of information related to the content unit. In pair or group work, the teacher first presents the task, then divides students and sets a time limit for completion of the task.
Classroom Techniques and Tasks in CBI classroom Information gap is a form of pair work in which the participants are each given different pieces of information. Using only language, they must communicate to fill in the missing gaps in information. Jigsaw is another variation of information gap. Students are first divided into “expert” groups, with each group given a different piece of information. Once the students in each group have become familiar with their piece of the jigsaw, they are regrouped. Graphic Organizers. Involves the use of visuals that assist in organizing information. They can consist of diagrams, tables, clusters etc. The teacher may use these graphic organizers to present information or guide student brainstorming.
Classroom Techniques and Tasks in CBI classroom Discussions and Debates Role-play Survey tasks Process writing Problem solving
Classroom Techniques and Tasks in CBI classroom Sequencing: involves students rearranging events or pieces of information into their logical order. This type of task is especially useful in the teaching of reading and listening. Ranking Values Clarification: Involves students taking a stand (agreeing or disagreeing) on controversial statements related to a chosen topic.
Summary We had a discussion on CBI and some of its more commonly practiced models (theme-based, sheltered, adjunct, and SCLT). We have situated CBI within the broader paradigm of CLT, articulated the underlying principles of CBI, and shown how these principles mesh with those of the communicatively oriented classroom. The classroom extracts illustrate the underlying principles in action. They provide a clearer picture of how content and language provide complementary aspects of the curriculum and how the input –rich environment of the CBI classroom can lead to successful language acquisition.