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The Performance of Nontraditional Banking Companies Chapter 5

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Presentation on theme: "The Performance of Nontraditional Banking Companies Chapter 5"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Performance of Nontraditional Banking Companies Chapter 5
S. Scott MacDonald, Ph.D. President and CEO, SW Graduate School of Banking Foundation Director, Assemblies for Bank Directors Adjunct Professor, Dept. of Finance, Cox School of Business Southern Methodist University

2 The Performance of Nontraditional Banking Companies
Examine: Goldman Sachs Group and Goldman Sachs Bank. Investment bank converted to financial holding company in 2008 Mutual of Omaha Bank Subsidiary of Mutual of Omaha BMW Bank of North America An industrial loan corporation (ILC) owned by BMW Financial Services, a division of BMW North America

3 The Performance of Nontraditional Banking Companies
Financial Services Modernization Act (1999) Effectively allowed commercial and investment banks to merge. Investment Banking Activities Securities underwriting Advisory services Market making Propriety trading and investing

4 The Performance of Nontraditional Banking Companies

5 Investment Banking: Four broad types of business
Securities Underwriting Advisory Services Market Making Proprietary Trading and Principal Investing

6 Securities Underwriting
Investment banks assist in raising funds through the issuance of bonds or stocks. If the security offering is a first-time placement Initial Public Offering (IPO) First-time placement

7 Advisory Services Investment banks offer numerous fee-based services that assist in managing risks Primary services are: Providing advice concerning mergers and acquisitions and spin-offs of lines of business Managing investable assets Making risk management decisions involving the uses of foreign currencies, commodities, and derivatives

8 Market Making Market Making
Investment banks may stand willing to buy securities from participants who want to sell and to sell securities to participants who want to buy Profit from the bid-ask spread. May also make a profit from the difference between the yield on the securities owned and the interest paid on debt Acts as a broker and does not take ownership of the underlying security.

9 Proprietary Trading and Principal Investing
When an investment bank takes a position in a security, derivative or stock of a company with the expectation that it will hold the position for some time, possibly even years, before trading out of it: Hedge Fund Private Equity Fund

10 Hedge Fund An investment fund that is limited to a small number of sophisticated investors. Little regulation Managers generally charge a 2 percent fee applied to the amount of assets under management plus a 20 percent performance fee equal to 20 percent of the profit generated during a year. This fee structure generates an extraordinary profit for the managers with limited downside risk.

11 Private Equity Fund Accept investments from institutional investors in the form of limited partnership investments The funds use the proceeds to buy companies and make other investments, but usually have a longer investment horizon than hedge funds when entering transactions. Fund managers earn a management fee plus a percentage (usually 20 percent) of profits in excess of some minimum rate of return.

12 Goldman Sachs Bank USA and Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.
Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is a $911 billion dollar in assets and separates its operations into four segments: Investment banking consists of securities underwriting and advisory services related to mergers, acquisitions, divestitures, spin-offs, and other corporate finance activities. Institutional client services include facilitating client transactions and market making. Investing and lending consists of direct investment in and origination of loans as well as direct and indirect investments in funds they operate as well as public and private equity positions. Investment management includes investment advisory, financial planning, prime brokerage and securities lending services to institutional clients, foundations, and high-net-worth individuals. Goldman Sachs Bank USA is a $105.6 billion dollar wholly owned subsidiary of Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. and is supervised by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and the New York State Department of Financial Services. Since it is also a registered swap dealer it is regulated by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission. The bank accepts deposits, lends to individuals and corporations, and transacts in derivatives.





17 Key performance ratios: Goldman Group and Goldman Bank

18 Accounting for fair market value of securities under FASB 157
Level 1 Assets: Valuations are based on observable market prices for the identical instrument (asset or liability). Labeled marking to market, examples include any publicly traded stock, government bonds, agency bonds, listed options and futures, and mutual funds. Level 2 Assets: Valuations are based on observable market data for similar assets or liabilities. Labeled marking to matrix, price quotes are typically obtained from dealer pricing services using survey information. Examples include corporate and municipal bonds that trade infrequently, many mortgage-backed securities and other asset-backed securities, and derivatives that are not publicly traded. Level 3 Assets: Valuations are based on management’s best judgment of what the underlying asset is worth. Management may use any pricing model and make its own assumptions regarding the model’s parameters. Labeled marking to myth, price quotes are the least reliable of all valuation techniques. Some assets may be substantially overpriced or underpriced depending on the model analytics.

19 The Financial Performance of Mutual of Omaha Bank
Mutual of Omaha (MO) An insurance company that offers a wide range of life, disability, long-term care, and medical supplement insurance along with annuities and mutual funds In 2007, the company opened Mutual of Omaha Bank (MOB), a thrift with 13 locations in Nebraska and Colorado through the acquisition and merger of three existing banks MOB’s strategic objective is to “acquire community banks in fast-growing cities with a high density of Mutual of Omaha insurance customers”



22 Mutual of Omaha Bank’s Risk Profile
MOB faces the same types of risk that other commercial banks face Its primary exposure is to credit risk The principal benefit from operating as part of MO is the diversification benefit and access to capital

23 Key performance ratios

24 Industrial Loan Companies (ILCs)
Originated in the early 1900s to make loans to borrowers who could not get loans at commercial banks Over time, ILCs were granted the right to issue deposits that were insured by the FDIC Today, the majority of ILCs are based in Utah, California, Colorado, and Nevada Historically, most ILCs operated to assist their parent organization in some facet of the firm’s core business ILCs gained notoriety when Wal-Mart applied for an ILC charter in 2005 Many community banks argued against granting Wal-Mart a charter because they were concerned that Wal-Mart would offer traditional banking services in all stores and potentially drive them out of business

25 The primary criticisms against granting commerce companies ILC charters are:
There should be a separation between commerce and banking to protect customers from potential conflicts of interest Firms like Wal-Mart could become so large and powerful that they might dominant business in many communities ILCs are not subject to the same regulation as commercial banks—which may create safety and soundness problems

26 BMW Bank of North America is an ILC owned by BMW Financial Services
BMW Financial Services offers loans, leases, and credit cards via BMW Bank Although BMW Bank operates from a single office in Utah, it collects deposits and uses borrowed funds to underwrite loans and leases for the purchase of automobiles at BMW dealers BMW Bank is chartered by the state of Utah and is also regulated by the FDIC because its deposits are FDIC insured BMW Bank makes loans to individuals either in the form of credit card loans or loans for automobiles The bank obtains most of it financing in the form of small time deposits and federal funds purchased



29 Key performance ratios

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