Presentation on theme: "The Performance of Nontraditional Banking Companies Chapter 5"— Presentation transcript:
1The Performance of Nontraditional Banking Companies Chapter 5 S. Scott MacDonald, Ph.D.President and CEO, SW Graduate School of Banking FoundationDirector, Assemblies for Bank DirectorsAdjunct Professor, Dept. of Finance, Cox School of BusinessSouthern Methodist University
2The Performance of Nontraditional Banking Companies Examine:Goldman Sachs Group and Goldman Sachs Bank.Investment bank converted to financial holding company in 2008Mutual of Omaha BankSubsidiary of Mutual of OmahaBMW Bank of North AmericaAn industrial loan corporation (ILC) owned by BMW Financial Services, a division of BMW North America
3The Performance of Nontraditional Banking Companies Financial Services Modernization Act (1999)Effectively allowed commercial and investment banks to merge.Investment Banking ActivitiesSecurities underwritingAdvisory servicesMarket makingPropriety trading and investing
4The Performance of Nontraditional Banking Companies
5Investment Banking: Four broad types of business Securities UnderwritingAdvisory ServicesMarket MakingProprietary Trading and Principal Investing
6Securities Underwriting Investment banks assist in raising funds through the issuance of bonds or stocks. If the security offering is a first-time placementInitial Public Offering (IPO)First-time placement
7Advisory ServicesInvestment banks offer numerous fee-based services that assist in managing risksPrimary services are:Providing advice concerning mergers and acquisitions and spin-offs of lines of businessManaging investable assetsMaking risk management decisions involving the uses of foreign currencies, commodities, and derivatives
8Market Making Market Making Investment banks may stand willing to buy securities from participants who want to sell and to sell securities to participants who want to buyProfit from the bid-ask spread.May also make a profit from the difference between the yield on the securities owned and the interest paid on debtActs as a broker and does not take ownership of the underlying security.
9Proprietary Trading and Principal Investing When an investment bank takes a position in a security, derivative or stock of a company with the expectation that it will hold the position for some time, possibly even years, before trading out of it:Hedge FundPrivate Equity Fund
10Hedge FundAn investment fund that is limited to a small number of sophisticated investors.Little regulationManagers generally charge a 2 percent fee applied to the amount of assets under management plus a 20 percent performance fee equal to 20 percent of the profit generated during a year.This fee structure generates an extraordinary profit for the managers with limited downside risk.
11Private Equity FundAccept investments from institutional investors in the form of limited partnership investmentsThe funds use the proceeds to buy companies and make other investments, but usually have a longer investment horizon than hedge funds when entering transactions.Fund managers earn a management fee plus a percentage (usually 20 percent) of profits in excess of some minimum rate of return.
12Goldman Sachs Bank USA and Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is a $911 billion dollar in assets and separates its operations into four segments:Investment banking consists of securities underwriting and advisory services related to mergers, acquisitions, divestitures, spin-offs, and other corporate finance activities.Institutional client services include facilitating client transactions and market making.Investing and lending consists of direct investment in and origination of loans as well as direct and indirect investments in funds they operate as well as public and private equity positions.Investment management includes investment advisory, financial planning, prime brokerage and securities lending services to institutional clients, foundations, and high-net-worth individuals.Goldman Sachs Bank USA is a $105.6 billion dollar wholly owned subsidiary of Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. and is supervised by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and the New York State Department of Financial Services.Since it is also a registered swap dealer it is regulated by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission.The bank accepts deposits, lends to individuals and corporations, and transacts in derivatives.
17Key performance ratios: Goldman Group and Goldman Bank
18Accounting for fair market value of securities under FASB 157 Level 1 Assets: Valuations are based on observable market prices for the identical instrument (asset or liability). Labeled marking to market, examples include any publicly traded stock, government bonds, agency bonds, listed options and futures, and mutual funds.Level 2 Assets: Valuations are based on observable market data for similar assets or liabilities. Labeled marking to matrix, price quotes are typically obtained from dealer pricing services using survey information. Examples include corporate and municipal bonds that trade infrequently, many mortgage-backed securities and other asset-backed securities, and derivatives that are not publicly traded.Level 3 Assets: Valuations are based on management’s best judgment of what the underlying asset is worth. Management may use any pricing model and make its own assumptions regarding the model’s parameters. Labeled marking to myth, price quotes are the least reliable of all valuation techniques. Some assets may be substantially overpriced or underpriced depending on the model analytics.
19The Financial Performance of Mutual of Omaha Bank Mutual of Omaha (MO)An insurance company that offers a wide range of life, disability, long-term care, and medical supplement insurance along with annuities and mutual fundsIn 2007, the company opened Mutual of Omaha Bank (MOB), a thrift with 13 locations in Nebraska and Colorado through the acquisition and merger of three existing banksMOB’s strategic objective is to “acquire community banks in fast-growing cities with a high density of Mutual of Omaha insurance customers”
22Mutual of Omaha Bank’s Risk Profile MOB faces the same types of risk that other commercial banks faceIts primary exposure is to credit riskThe principal benefit from operating as part of MO is the diversification benefit and access to capital
24Industrial Loan Companies (ILCs) Originated in the early 1900s to make loans to borrowers who could not get loans at commercial banksOver time, ILCs were granted the right to issue deposits that were insured by the FDICToday, the majority of ILCs are based in Utah, California, Colorado, and NevadaHistorically, most ILCs operated to assist their parent organization in some facet of the firm’s core businessILCs gained notoriety when Wal-Mart applied for an ILC charter in 2005Many community banks argued against granting Wal-Mart a charter because they were concerned that Wal-Mart would offer traditional banking services in all stores and potentially drive them out of business
25The primary criticisms against granting commerce companies ILC charters are: There should be a separation between commerce and banking to protect customers from potential conflicts of interestFirms like Wal-Mart could become so large and powerful that they might dominant business in many communitiesILCs are not subject to the same regulation as commercial banks—which may create safety and soundness problems
26BMW Bank of North America is an ILC owned by BMW Financial Services BMW Financial Services offers loans, leases, and credit cards via BMW BankAlthough BMW Bank operates from a single office in Utah, it collects deposits and uses borrowed funds to underwrite loans and leases for the purchase of automobiles at BMW dealersBMW Bank is chartered by the state of Utah and is also regulated by the FDIC because its deposits are FDIC insuredBMW Bank makes loans to individuals either in the form of credit card loans or loans for automobilesThe bank obtains most of it financing in the form of small time deposits and federal funds purchased