DIGRESSION: BUT – parts of speech BUT can be a CONJUNCTION: – It wasn’t the red skirt but the blue one. – By the end of the day we were tired but happy. – I am sorry but I can’t stay any longer. – I had no choice but to sign the contract. BUT can be an ADVERB: – There were a lot of celebrities there: Tom Cruise and Angelina Jolie, to name but two. BUT can be a NOUN: – With so many ifs and buts, it is better to wait. BUT can be a PREPOSITON: – The problem was anything but easy. – Everyone was there but him. – I came last but one in the race. (next to last)
BASIC PREPOSITIONAL MEANINGS PREPOSITIONAL MEANINGS SPACE TIME PROCESSCONTINGENCY OTHER MEANINGS
SPACE Prepositions denoting spatial relations can be classified into several subgroups on the basis of two criteria: TYPE OF REFERENCE POINT STATIC OR DYNAMIC POSITION Type of reference point:
page 118 – exercise 4 (a-e) TIME: location SPACE: surface, directionSPACE: location, point SPACE: point, direction SPACE: point, direction (destination) SPACE: surface, location SPACE: surface, direction
page 118 – exercise 4 (f-j) CONTINGENCY: purpose, goal SPACE: area, direction CONTINGENCY: purpose, goal SPACE: location, point TIME: metaphorical extension of the meaning of space
page 118 – exercise 4 (k-o) SPACE: surface, direction SPACE: line, location, relative position SPACE: metaphorical extension of space PROCESS: instrument
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