# PP PRACTICE CLASS #5 (#6) 2012-03-27/28. Today …

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PP PRACTICE CLASS #5 (#6) 2012-03-27/28

Today …

WE WILL GET PPs OUT OF THE WAY…

page 119 – exercise 5 (a-e) IN ATONOF OFF/ONAT AGAINST WITH

page 119 – exercise 5 (f-i) IN TO BY

page 119 – exercise 6 (i-j) PREPADV PREP CONJUNCTION

DIGRESSION: BUT – parts of speech BUT can be a CONJUNCTION: – It wasn’t the red skirt but the blue one. – By the end of the day we were tired but happy. – I am sorry but I can’t stay any longer. – I had no choice but to sign the contract. BUT can be an ADVERB: – There were a lot of celebrities there: Tom Cruise and Angelina Jolie, to name but two. BUT can be a NOUN: – With so many ifs and buts, it is better to wait. BUT can be a PREPOSITON: – The problem was anything but easy. – Everyone was there but him. – I came last but one in the race. (next to last)

BASIC PREPOSITIONAL MEANINGS PREPOSITIONAL MEANINGS SPACE TIME PROCESSCONTINGENCY OTHER MEANINGS

SPACE Prepositions denoting spatial relations can be classified into several subgroups on the basis of two criteria:  TYPE OF REFERENCE POINT  STATIC OR DYNAMIC POSITION Type of reference point:

TIME

PROCESS

CONTINGENCY

OTHER MEANINGS

page 118 – exercise 4 (a-e) TIME: location SPACE: surface, directionSPACE: location, point SPACE: point, direction SPACE: point, direction (destination) SPACE: surface, location SPACE: surface, direction

page 118 – exercise 4 (f-j) CONTINGENCY: purpose, goal SPACE: area, direction CONTINGENCY: purpose, goal SPACE: location, point TIME: metaphorical extension of the meaning of space

page 118 – exercise 4 (k-o) SPACE: surface, direction SPACE: line, location, relative position SPACE: metaphorical extension of space PROCESS: instrument

page 119 – exercise 4 (p-t) CONTINGENCY: cause, reason PROCESS: agent TIME: location PROCESS: manner CONTINGENCY: condition OTHER: respect CONTINGENCY: concession

THE END OF PREPOSITIONS AND THE PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE

THE LAST TOPIC BEFORE THE MID-TERM EXAM ADVERBIALS

Page 128 – exercise 1 (a-d) AdvP finite clause verbless clause PP finite clause PP

Page 128 – exercise 1 (i-k) PP verbless clause PP non-finite clause

LET’S NOW GO BACK TO…

EXERCISE #1 AND ANALYZE THE FUNCTIONS THERE.

Page 128 – exercise 1 (a-d) AdvP finite clause verbless clause PP finite clause PP adjunct