Abstract Structure 1a. 洗了 b. 春天了 2a. 他洗了 b. 他洗了衣 c. 衣他洗了 d. 他打算洗衣
Constituencies and hierarchies A B C D E dominance/motherhood precedence/sisterhood
Constituency test Displacement Deletion Co-ordination Replacement with a pro-form
He will do it. a. He will do it and do it he will. b. They will not do it, but he will. c. He will do it and win the prize. d. He will do it and so will the others.
Aux and tense 1a. He kicked the ball. b. He will kick the ball. c. They didn’t kick the ball, but he did. d. Kick the ball I wonder whether he will. 2a. He did it. b. I didn’t expect him to do it. INFL [ Tense, AGR]
X-bar convention XP Spec X’ X Comp local(lexical) spec-head(functional)
IP: a functional projection 1a. He will kick the ball. b. He kicked the ball. c. I didn’t expect him to do it. IP Spec I’ I VP Spec V’ V Comp
CP: another functional projection 1a. I will ask if [he will do it]. b. I think that [he will do it]. c. I expect for [him to do it]. CP Spec C’ C IP
FP: small clauses 1a. I consider [him very smart]. b. I consider [him a true friend]. c. I consider [his proposals completely out of the question]. 2a. Je considère le garçon très intelligent. I consider the boy very intelligent b. Je considère la fille très intelligente. I consider the girl very intelligent. 3 I consider him as my best friend.
Je considère le garçon très intelligent. AGRP Spec AGR’ AGR AP
I consider him as my best friend. AGRP Spec AGR’ AGR AP
Subcategorization 1a. She cried (with grief). b. She cried real tears. c. She cried over the loss of life. 2a. 他喜爱足球。 b. 他十分喜爱足球。 c. * 他喜爱十分足球。
Head-to-head movement 1a. When will he do it? b.*I wonder whether will he do it. c.*When that will he do it? 2a. Quoi que tu as fait? what that you have done b. Men shal knowe who that I am men shall know who that I am
When will he do it? CP Spec C’ C IP Spec I’ I VP
*I wonder whether will [he do it]. CP Spec C’ C IP Spec I’ I VP
Men shall know who that I am. CP Spec C’ C IP Spec I’ I VP
1a. He i likes him *i/j /himself i. b. [His i brother] j likes him i /himself j. 2a. da den inspekteur da boek gelezen eet that the inspector that book read has b. dan d’inspekteurs da boek gelezen een that the inspectors that book read have Structural relations
He likes him/himself. IP Spec I’ I VP Spec V’ V Comp
His brother likes him/himself. IP Spec I’ I VP Spec V’ V Comp
CP Spec C’ C IP NP I’ VP I da den inspekteur da boek gelezen eet
c-commands iff does not dominate and every X that dominates also dominates . X C-command
Adjuncts and adjunction 1a. John quickly fixed the car. b. John fixed the car quickly. c. Fix the car quickly, I wonder whether he will. 2a. Evidently, John fixed the car. b. He fixed the car, evidently. 3a. He fixed the car in the morning. b. He fixed the car when Bill was still sleeping. 4a. *He speaks badly English. b. He told me to drink every night two glasses of mineral water with a slice of lemon.
VP-adjuncts IP Spec I’ I VP Spec V’ Adjunct V’ V Comp