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1 Grammar Introduction What is grammar?. 2 Prescriptive grammar deals with what is correct or incorrect “…[English]…is taught so bloody badly” Prince.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Grammar Introduction What is grammar?. 2 Prescriptive grammar deals with what is correct or incorrect “…[English]…is taught so bloody badly” Prince."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Grammar Introduction What is grammar?

2 2 Prescriptive grammar deals with what is correct or incorrect “…[English]…is taught so bloody badly” Prince Charles, 1989 Descriptive grammar deals with the effect different linguistic choices can have on communication in different contexts

3 3 Example of a prescriptive grammar rule – a sentence should not end in a preposition 1.This is the house (which) he lives in. 2.This is the house in which he lives.

4 4 There are rules of grammar and rules of style Did you see the man near the table with the hairy legs? This sentence does not break any grammatical rule but it is not effective communication

5 5 Why learn grammar? ” An increased knowledge of the grammatical resources of the language will provide the language user with conscious mastery over a range of possibilities for constructing sentences effectively” Collins and Hollo (pp18-19)

6 6 What are these possibilities? Choice of vocabulary Grammatical choices Choice of style All of these will influence how the reader/listener interprets your message.

7 7 Choice of vocabulary A young man walks through chest deep flood water after looting a grocery store in New Orleans on Tuesday, Aug. 30, Flood waters continue to rise in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina did extensive damage when it made landfall on Monday. (AP Photo/Dave Martin)(AP Photo/Dave Martin)

8 8 Choice of vocabulary Two residents wade through chest-deep water after finding bread and soda from a local grocery store after Hurricane Katrina came through the area in New Orleans, Louisiana.(AFP/Getty Images/Chris Graythen)(AFP/Getty Images/Chris Graythen)

9 9 Grammatical choices Active The police killed the demonstrators S VO Passive The demonstrators were killed (by the police) SV

10 10 Choice of style Open the window! Open the window please Could you open the window please? Would you mind opening the window please? It certainly is hot in here.

11 11 Language structure This course deals with how sentences are put together and how different combinations and choices are used, what affects these choices and what effect the choices have on interpretation and understanding. To do this we analyse sentences and look at common language errors for non-native speakers of English.

12 12 Different levels of analysis Discourse (Sentence) Clause (S, P/V, O, C, A) Phrase (NP, VP, PP) Word (Word class) Morpheme (-s, -able, un- etc)

13 13 Word Class Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Prepositions Pronouns Conjunctions Determiners

14 14 Nouns They typically denote people, places & objects Fredrik, France, table But can be more abstract things Unemployment, calmness, stupidity We can test if they are nouns The stupidity (of my friends) Such stupidity His stupidity

15 15 Verbs They typically express actions, activities as well as states and relationships There are six inflectional forms: Presenttalkbreak 3rd person talksbreaks Pasttalkedbroke Infinitiveto talkto break Present participletalkingbreaking Past participletalkedbroken

16 16 Adjectives They denote a characteristic or quality They can be predicative (post-modifying) My cat is fat or attributive (pre-modifying) That is a fat cat

17 17 Adjectives They are gradable My cat is fatPositive My cat is fatter than yoursComparative Her cat is the the fattestSuperlative more beautiful, the most beautiful

18 18 Adverbs They typically have the meaning of manner, time, place etc. and they typically modify verbs look carefully but can also modify adjectives absolutely lovely other adverbs very carefully and whole clauses Unfortunately, we have to leave early.

19 19 The other word classes Prepositions of, in, at, under, to after, by Pronouns you, it, mine Conjunctions and, or Determiners the, a/an, these, some

20 20 Show what word class these words belong to NounVerb love verify escape unemployment run mother cousin worry

21 21 Phrase structure Noun phrase NP – the noun is the head My four friends in the car want to come too. Verb phrase VP – the verb is the head I have been thinking about leaving. Preposition phrase PP My four friends in the car want to come too.

22 22 Clause structure When we analyse sentences, we talk about clause elements. The names for these differ in different grammar books but for this course we have used the following terms Subject Ssubjekt PredicatorP/Vpredikat ObjectOobjekt ComplementCpredikatsfyllnad Adjunct/AdverbialAadjunkt

23 23 Subject & Object The subject and object usually consist of a nominal phrase (a phrase in which the head word is a noun) My four friends or a nominal clause (a clause with a nominal function) taking the opportunity to climb the Eiffel Tower what we need

24 24 How do we identify the subject? Tag question Jean is your sister, isn’t she? Substitute with a nominative pronoun Inversion Is she your sister? Subject-verb agreement Are they your sisters?

25 25 Predicator – (also V verb element) The predicator contains the verb element and can either be a main verb only or contain auxiliary verbs (hjälpverb) as well. play have played would have played

26 26 Complement - sometimes called predicative Complements can consist of nominal phrases My friend was a maths teacher nominal clauses That is what I mean or adjectives This is beautiful

27 27 Complement Subject complements, which tell us about the subject of the sentence, occur after a copular verb (bindeverb) eg. be, feel, remain, become, get Object complements come after complex transitive verbs eg appoint, call, consider, make and tell us something about the object

28 28 Adjuncts - sometimes called adverbials They can move position more readily than other elements. They can have a number of different meanings. They can express: Time Manner Reason Space Opinion Degree Frequency

29 29 Adjuncts These have a number of different characteristics. They can be adverbs or preposition phrases. Unfortunately within the next two years on the floor

30 30 Adjuncts Quite often it is possible that there can be more than one position for an adjunct in a sentence Last week we moved to a new flat We moved to a new flat last week Adjuncts are usually not obligatory elements, which means they can be left out and we will still have an acceptable sentence We moved to a new flat

31 31 Match the following pairs Column 1Column 2 A.noun phrase B.Conjunction C.complement C Clause structure B Word class A Phrase structure SubmitClear Correct - Click anywhere to continue Incorrect - Click anywhere to continue You answered this correctly! Your answer: The correct answer is: You did not answer this question completely You must answer the question before continuing

32 32 Match the following pairs Column 1Column 2 A.Preposition phrase B.adverb C.subject C Clause structure A Phrase structure B Word class SubmitClear Correct - Click anywhere to continue Incorrect - Click anywhere to continue You answered this correctly! Your answer: The correct answer is: You did not answer this question completely You must answer the question before continuing

33 33 This is an example of a preposition phrase: in the middle of next week SubmitClear Correct - Click anywhere to continue Incorrect - Click anywhere to continue You answered this correctly! Your answer: The correct answer is: You did not answer this question completely You must answer the question before continuing A) True B) False

34 34 This is an example of a noun phrase: My cousin who is a actress SubmitClear Correct - Click anywhere to continue Incorrect - Click anywhere to continue You answered this correctly! Your answer: The correct answer is: You did not answer this question completely You must answer the question before continuing A) True B) False

35 35 Name 3 word classes SubmitClear Correct - Click anywhere to continue Incorrect - Click anywhere to continue You answered this correctly! Your answer: The correct answer is: You did not answer this question completely You must answer the question before continuing A) noun B) subject C) preposition D) predicator E) complement F) adjective

36 36 Grammar introduction Your Score{score} Max Score{max-score} Number of Quiz Attempts {total-attempts} Question Feedback/Review Information Will Appear Here Review Quiz Continue


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