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Gareth Morgan “Images of Organization” Chapter Nine By Cynthia J. Spence.

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1 Gareth Morgan “Images of Organization” Chapter Nine By Cynthia J. Spence

2 Our Organizations are Killing Us! In his chapter “The Ugly Face: Organizations as Instruments of Domination,” Gareth Morgan states that “Whether by design or by default, organizations often have a large negative impact on our world” and his purpose for this chapter is to explore “how organizations can be understood as instruments of domination” (293).

3 Organizations as Instruments of Contamination Morgan begins this chapter by warning us that modern day toxins such as food additives, cleaning products, pesticides, tobacco, and environmental pollution, are slowly killing the human population. Additionally, Morgan forewarns that these “ingested toxins may well have an influence on mutations of the human gene pool, producing irreversible damage in generations to come” (291). Morgan believes that our industrial organizations are still spewing “millions of tons of toxic waste into our waterways and atmosphere” because they are legally allowed to do so. In fact, corporate practices have a long history of placing “profits before human welfare” (292).

4 Originations as Instruments of Pollution An example of businesses blatant disregard for the environment is particularly evident when examining both the European and American Industrial Revolutions. Unfortunately Asia, China specifically, is currently showing the same disregard for the environment as they experience their own manufacturing growth today. China’s current economic growth comes at the expense of controls on air pollution, land clearing, deforestation, endangered species and rural and industrial waste. Currently, China’s huge population, combined with geographical factors, make its environmental problems infinitely more massive than that of other nations.

5 China as an Instrument of Pollution In her 2007 dissertation, Gayle Hagler, from the Georgia Institute of Technology, states that China is one of the world’s fastest growing industrial areas and unfortunately is a major contributor to environmental pollution. Hagler reports that the Pearl River Delta region on China’s south coast churns out more than $100 billion worth of goods annually. Factory after factory produces inexpensive items, such as electronics, clothing, and toys, most of them destined for export to eager consumers in North America, Europe, and other parts of Asia. The dark side of this economic powerhouse is these factories also produce high levels of air pollution. Levels of fine particulate matter measured in China’s Pearl River Delta region are nearly double U.S. air-quality standards; a thick haze often obscures Hong Kong’s skyline.

6 Originations and E-Waste Another contributor to China’s pollution problem is E-Waste. The following is an excerpt of an article “Recycling E-Waste: Who’s Responsible?” written by Jonathan Zigman in August of 2006: Elementary school students are conscientious citizens of the earth. They recycle everything. Across the country, aluminum cans, newspapers, and milk cartons are diligently sorted into different colored bins for proper recycling. Try throwing an empty soda bottle in the trash in front of an elementary school student—they simply will not allow it. If they can take the time to keep us honest about recycling harmless products like paper and plastic, why are we having such a hard time figuring out what to do with truly harmful materials? Continued on next page

7 Originations and E-Waste II In particular, the toxic materials contained in computers, monitors, and other electronic equipment pose health threats that range from birth defects to cancer. Because of consistent failure to adhere to proper disposal procedures, the United States is facing a crisis created by record amounts of electronic waste. E- Waste is now the fastest growing waste category in the world. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that American consumers and businesses will dispose of two million tons of used electronics this year alone, including 133,000 PC’s daily. Unfortunately, up to 80% of the tech trash generated in the U.S. is shipped to dumping grounds overseas, a practice which is currently legal. Many so-called recycling companies simply load electronics onto shipping containers and send them to less-developed countries like China, Nigeria and Vietnam. While many argue this used computer equipment will help spur development in these countries, the reality is the majority of the equipment is truly useless. It is simply cheaper to dump it overseas than to properly recycle it in the U.S. Consequently, serious health issues stemming from third-world tech dumps are rampant and on the rise. http://www.cioupdate.com/trends/article.php/3628066

8 E-Waste and the Human Factor What does China do with this E-Waste? They build mountains out of it and allow their poorest citizens to remove the solder and Mercury which they then sell to support their families. Unfortunately, these workers pay a heavy price for doing this type of work. Anna O.W. Leung (2008) reports that a preliminary environmental study shows that the heavy metal levels in dust samples collected from the homes of two “solder recovery” workers were 4–23 times higher than that from a neighboring house where none of the residents were involved in e-waste activities. Therefore, workers inadvertently transported the contaminant from the workshops back to their homes, increasing the exposure of their children to heavy metals. E-Waste workers and their children are frequenting diagnosed with digestive, neurological, and respiratory problems along with having high incidences of bone disease. Their health problems are believed to be directly related to their exposure to heavy metals.

9 Images of China’s E-Waste

10 What Goes Around – Comes Around For Americans, sending our E-waste to China may have seemed like a reasonable way to dispose of harmful materials. However, Oregonlive.com reports in their article “China’s Mercury Flushes into Oregon’s rivers” that every five or six days, winds bring China’s airborne pollution, which contains the poison mercury, to American soil. Russ Schnell, the director for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration reports that in a few years, the ozone on the West Coast will not be controlled by California and Oregon but “Will be controlled by China.”

11 The Pyramid as Metaphor of Exploitation On page 293, Morgan discusses the pyramid as a “metaphor of exploitation.” Using the Great Pyramid at Giza as an example, Morgan reminds us that these magnificent structures were built on the backs of thousands of people who were “used to serve and glorify a privileged elite” (293). In today’s society, Morgan believes that the pyramid system is still in full force with the majority of individuals still working in the interests of the few. However, today, slave drivers are identified as managers, slaves are listed as paid employees, and the rulers of the day are dominating governments and huge corporations.

12 Three Organizational Theorists and Their View on Domination Karl Marx (296) Domination is generated by the quest for surplus value and the accumulation of capital. Robert Michels (296) Organizations end up under the control of narrow groups and tend to form a monopoly of power. Democratic elected leaders can fall into this trap. Max Weber According to Weber, the most obvious form of domination “arises when one or more persons coerce others through the direct use of threat or force” (294). However, Weber reports that domination also occurs in more subtle ways, as “when a ruler imposes his or her will on others while being perceived as having a right to do so” (294). This form of domination becomes legitimized as “normal” and rulers see themselves as having the “right to rule” and those being ruled see it as their “duty to obey.”

13 Three Organizational Theorists and Their View on Domination II Weber identifies three types of social domination that can become legitimate forms of authority or power: The Charismatic This occurs when a leader rules by virtue of his or her personal qualities. (e.g., a prophet, hero, heroine, or demagogue) The Traditional Respect for tradition and the past. Having power as a result of inherited status The Rational-Legal Power is legitimized by laws, rules, regulations, and procedures. The ruler can attain legitimate power only by following the legal procedures that specify how the ruler is to be appointed. The typical administrative apparatus is the bureaucracy, a rational- legal framework in which formal authority is concentrated at the top of the organization hierarchy.

14 NCLB – An Example of Rational-Legal Domination Does this sound familiar? “Modern organizations typically end up under the control of narrow groups” (296). “Despite the best intentions, these organizations seemed to develop tendencies that gave their leaders a near monopoly of power. As leaders rise to power they tend to become preoccupied with their own way of looking at things” (296). “Democratic forms of organization can result in modes of domination where certain people acquire and sustain a commanding influence over others, often through subtle processes of socialization and belief” (296). “As we become increasingly subject to administration through rules and engage in strict calculations relating means and ends and costs and benefits, we become increasingly dominated by the process itself. Impersonal principles and the quest for efficiency tend to become our new slave drivers” (296). Today, the pyramid of education is being built on the backs of educators who constantly strive to meet the unrealistic goals set by a narrow group of leaders who rationalize the educational process but do not understand the truth of it.

15 Organizations and Employee Exploitation II: Organization, Class and Control Increasing numbers of professionals once regarded as a core part of the “primary” labor market are finding themselves working on limited contracts where long-term commitments are neither desired nor possible (302). An example of a “class system” in education is the “us against them” struggle currently taking place on many community college campuses today. The conflict arises between full-time instructors who receive a salary, health benefits, retirement plans, and eventual tenure compared to adjunct faculty members who are paid an hourly wage and do not receive any benefits at all. Adjuncts often perceive themselves as being categorized as “lower- class” employees.

16 Organizations and Employee Exploitation II: Organization, Class and Control - Continued Until I became an adjunct professor, I had no idea this conflict existed. However, I now witness it almost every day. Many adjuncts feel they are disrespected by full-time employees and are overlooked by the system. A recent example of a conflict arose over “intercession” classes being offered over the winter break. Full-time employees are given “first choice” of these classes and receive pay in addition to their current salaries. Adjunct professors, who are often struggling to survive financially, are only offered the “very few” classes that go unclaimed. The argument is the adjunct faculty members actually need these classes to survive, while for full-time faculty members these classes are simply an extra financial bonus. The following is an excerpt from an email I recently received from my adjunct union representative: Few understand that statewide approximately 66% of the classes in community colleges are taught by adjuncts who earn less than 26% of what a full time faculty member would earn for teaching the same class. At COD full time faculty account for only 41% of the FTE, nine points below the state Education Code's recommended 50%. And virtually no one knows we work without health benefits, have no office space and generally have no job security even though many of the state's 41,000 adjuncts have taught at their home institution for more than five years.

17 Organizations and Employee Exploitation III: Work Hazards and Occupational Disease “Data on occupational illness and diseases are more difficult to tie down than those on accidents because the links are often harder to document in an authoritative way” (306). As educators, one of the hazards of our job is coming in to contact with “germs” in the workplace. The following slide contains an excerpt from a 2008 article written by Gini Kopecky Wallace and published by The National Education Association.

18 Organizations and Employee Exploitation III: Work Hazards and Occupational Disease Continued Here comes another school year- and another round of all the demands and challenges that can take a toll on your health if you’re not careful. Here’s how to protect it: Guard Against Germs – The illnesses we probably see most in educators are things they pick up from children – colds, upper respiratory infections, and gastrointestinal illnesses.” Watch Your Back – I think all educators are at some risk of musculoskeletal injury because they’re always setting up classrooms, taking things down, lifting supplies and equipment. Prevent Accidents – Teachers are also susceptible to injuries from slipping, falling, getting hit by things, walking into open doors, and tripping over cords.

19 Organizations and Employee Exploitation III: Work Hazards and Occupational Disease Continued Flu Blamed In Lansing Teacher's DeathFlu Blamed In Lansing Teacher's Death Sadly, according to Morgan, every year organizations are responsible for the deaths of “hundreds of thousands of workers” due to workplace accidents and work-related illnesses and over “10,000 deaths occur in North America alone” (292). Overly tired teachers, are often susceptible to illness.

20 Organizations and Employee Exploitation III: Work Hazards and Occupational Disease Continued According to Tim Grants 2007 article published in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, assaults on teachers hit a high in 2006 and have been steadily rising for some time. “Substitute teacher Arthur Becker was injured in December when students at Shaler Area Intermediate School threw an M-80 firecracker into his classroom. Becker continues to suffer hearing loss and vision problems.” http://www.post- gazette.com/pg/07064/766954- 298.stm Mr. Becker, 60, is among 179 teachers in Allegheny County schools who were physically assaulted by students while doing their jobs last year.

21 Organizations and Employee Exploitation III: Work Hazards and Occupational Disease Continued Teacher Student Fight Video Student/teacher fight in Georgia. A Stephenson High School substitute teacher and a tenth-grade student have been charged for fighting each other on the last day of school. A cell phone camera captured the entire incident. The fight happened Friday, May 23 on the last day of school. According to an incident report, the two had been having conflicts all day. The teacher, listed as Carolyn Jones, said she overheard the student saying she was going to pull Jones' wig off. The 53-year-old said she took the wig off herself and told the student that she would have to protect herself if the student messed with her. The brawl was caught on another student's cell phone camera. Police are still reviewing the video to see if Jones acted in self-defense and who started the fight. But the incident report states that it was the teacher who kicked the student in the leg as she was heading out the door, possibly starting the altercation. At one point on the tape it appears the teacher takes off a shoe and begins hitting the student with it. The report also indicated both the teacher and student walked away with scratches on their faces. DeKalb County school police have charged Jones and the student with disorderly conduct. The school said the tenth-grader may also face further disciplinary action.

22 Organizations and Employee Exploitation Morgan uses Arthur Miller’s well-known play Death of Salesman as an example of an employee who dedicated his life to an organization and then was discarded when he “bent” under the constant pressure. The following video depicts a teacher who also “bent” under constant pressure. Staffroom Monologues - How are You? Riz Ahmed plays a young primary school teacher sinking under the pressure of work and struggling to keep his emotions in check

23 Workaholism and Social and Mental Stress White-color workers are often “far more likely to suffer from work-related coronary disease, ulcers, and mental breakdown” (310). “Coronary disease, often labeled the ‘management killer,’ is being increasingly recognized as a problem affecting many people in stressful work situations” (311). “Type-A” personality, driven by the compulsion to control his or her work environment, ambitious, achievement oriented, competitive, impatient, and perfectionistic, is always a good candidate for coronary problems” (311). “For women, stress is identified a the number-one problem” (311). Major stress concerns: “Overwork, impossible schedules, high uncertainty, fear of job loss, economic problems, work-family conflicts, and other contextual factors” (311). Even when people enjoy their jobs, work pressures in the modern corporation can carry the ‘enjoyment’ too far” (312).

24 What is stress? “It is estimated that somewhere between 75 and 90 percent of visits to physicians in the United States are stress related” (311). According to Melissa Conrad Stoppler, MD, stress may be considered as any physical, chemical, or emotional factor that causes bodily or mental unrest and that may be a factor in disease causation. Physical and chemical factors that can cause stress include trauma, infections, toxins, illnesses, and injuries of any sort. Emotional causes of stress and tension are numerous and varied (such as recently being accepted into a rigorous doctorate program). The degree of stress in our lives is highly dependent upon individual factors such as our physical health, the quality of our interpersonal relationships, the number of commitments and responsibilities we carry (such as the number of questions on Dr. Rigg’s final exam), the degree of others' dependence upon us, the amount of support we receive from others, and the number of changes or traumatic events that have recently occurred in our lives.

25 Excess stress or "out-of-control" stress? Manifestations of excess or poorly- managed stress can be extremely varied. While many people report that stress induces headaches, sleep disturbances, feelings of anxiety or tension, anger, or concentration problems, others may complain of depression or lack of interest in food, increased appetite, or any number of other symptoms. In severe situations, one can experience overwhelming stress to the point of so-called "burnout," with loss of interest in normal activities. See example of “out of control stress” on the following excerpt from Nick Nolte’s 1983 film “Teachers.”

26 Stress Management An important goal for those under stress is the management of life stresses. Elimination of stress is unrealistic, since stress is a part of normal life. It's impossible to completely eliminate stress, and it would not be advisable to do so. Instead, we can learn to manage stress so that we have control over our stress and its effects on our physical and mental health. Stress also has effects on the immune system. While some studies show that acute short- term stresses may actually be able to boost the body's immune response, chronic (long-term) stress has the effect of "wearing down" the immune system, leading to an increased susceptibility to colds and other infections. Scientific studies have also shown that stress can decrease the immune response to vaccinations and prolong wound healing.

27 Stress Management Exercise - Physical exercise not only promotes overall fitness, but it helps you to manage emotional stress and tension as well. Relaxation and meditation- There are many ways to use structured relaxation and meditation techniques to help control stress and improve your physical and mental well-being. While some types of meditation and relaxation therapies are best learned in a class, it's also possible to learn meditation techniques on your own. Time management- Good time-management skills are critical for effective stress control. In particular, learning to prioritize tasks and avoid over-commitment are critical measures to make sure that you're not overscheduled. Organizational skills- If your physical surroundings (office, desk, kitchen, closet, car) are well-organized, you won't be faced with the stress of misplaced objects and clutter. Support systems - People with strong social support systems experience fewer physical and emotional symptoms of stress than their less-connected counterparts.

28 “No-Stress” Goody Bags We have been laughing about the amount of stress our cohort has recently been under and as I read this chapter our lives as doctorate students kept “flashing before my eyes.” With this in mind, I was prompted to look for items that might help us “de-stress” a little. You may now open your goody bags and I hope you enjoy your “stress – relieving” gifts.

29 Stress Relief Gifts for the Women Bath and Body Stress Relieving Shower Gel and Body Lotion Body Lotion Stress Relief - Eucalyptus Spearmint Think clearly. Eucalyptus Essential Oil clears the mind to improve concentration. Spearmint Essential Oil is uplifting and helps the mind to focus. This ultra- creamy body lotion contains Natural Soybean Oil to nourish and moisturize skin and Glycerin to attract moisture to skin.  Breathe deeply for best results  Never tested on animals  Fragranced with essential oils and other natural fragrances  Natural ingredients may cause color variations

30 Stress Relief Gifts for the Men Flashing Neutron BallThe Flashing Neutron Ball is full of stellar bouncing action! This fun stress reliever is a colorful, firm but flexible, high bounce ball. Relax during your busy workday and play with the Flashing Neutron Ball. Fidget with it, play catch, or bounce it on your desk to activate a multi- colored light show. This cool stress ball is made of colorful 3" star shapes interwoven around a light-up center.

31 Stress Relief Gifts for the Men Slinky “Some of the most commonly found stress relief toys are stress balls, rubber toys that you can twist and bend, and my personal favorite, the good old fashioned Slinky toy” From Lacey Wills’ article “Stress Relief Toys: Helpful or Not?

32 Additional Gift for Everyone Kills 99.9% of Germs Handy For Purse, Pocket, Briefcase Or Car Leaves Hands Feeling Refreshed and Soft Approximately 70 Sprays

33 Strengths and Limitations of the Domination Metaphor “Actions that are rational for increasing profitability may have a damaging effect on employees’ health” (329). “The pursuit of rationality can itself be a mode of domination” (330). “Many organizations are literally divided societies that perpetuate class warfare in the workplace” (331). “The domination metaphor encourages us to recognize and deal with perceived and actual exploitation” (331). “Non-dominating forms of organization may be possible” (333).

34 Closing Comments I found this anonymous quote on a teacher’s website: –“You see it everyday. It sits on the shelf or by the window in your classroom. Do you ever wonder why it's there? Well, the globe in your classroom lets you see our world more closely. It allows you to have our world in your hands.” As Educators, please remember, just because you have “our world in your hands” doesn’t mean you have to carry the “world on your shoulders.”


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