Presentation on theme: "Adverb and Adverb Phrase He hit the ball hard and this time it flew into the back of the net. He performed so enthusiastically that the judges overlooked."— Presentation transcript:
Adverb and Adverb Phrase He hit the ball hard and this time it flew into the back of the net. He performed so enthusiastically that the judges overlooked her inexperience. We missed the bargains because we did not get there soon enough. Just, well, soon, too, quite Kind of, of course, at last Tragically, excitably, easily, really Homeward, afterwards, pricewise,healthwise Sometimes
Adverb and Adverb Phrase Like adjectives, adverbs are a word class that chiefly functions as modifying elements, but what is modified by an adverb is normally a verb, an adjective, a preposition, a conjunction or another adverb. As a clause element, adverb phrases may be used as adverbials of time, place, manner, etc; they may also be used as disjuncts, expressing the speakers ’ attitude or assessment on an accompanying clause, or as conjuncts, playing the role of connectives.
In terms of word formation, adverbs fall into two groups: simple adverbs and derivative adverbs. Simple adverbs are those that consist of only one free morpheme; they are mostly identical in form with corresponding adjectives. Derivative adverbs are those that are derived from adjectives by adding a suffix – ly, and most adverbs are derivatives. Semantically, adverbs can be subdivided into adverbs of manner, adverbs of time, adverbs of frequency, adverbs of place, as well as conjunctive and explanatory adverbs.
Pay more attention to the adverbs used in the text. Talk to bosses and you discover a gnawing worry-about the supply of talent. “talent” is one of those irritating words that has been hijacked by management gurus.It used to mean innate ability, but in modern business it has become a synonym for brain power (both natural and trained) and especially the ability to think creatively. The best evidence of a “talent shortage” can be seen in high-tech firms.
Companies of all sorts are taking longer to fill jobs-and say they are having to make do with sub-standard employees. People often talk about shortages when they should really be discussing price.Eventually, supply will rise to meet demand and the market will adjust. But, while you wait, your firm might go burst.
Two things are making it much harder for companies to adjust. The first is the collapse of loyalty. Companies happily chopped out the layers of managers during the 1990s; now people are likely to repay them by moving to the higher bidder. The second is the mismatch between what schools are producing and what companies need. In most Western countries schools are churning out too few scientists and engineers—and far too many people who lack the skills to work in a modern economy (that why there are talent shortage at the top alongside structural unemployment for the low- skilled.)
This poses different challenges for companies and governments. For companies the main task is simply to end up with more talented people than their competitors. Firms will surely have to cast their net wider, employing more part-time workers and more older workers, and spending yet more on training.But governments too need to act. Removing barriers is a priority
Chief uses of adverbs and adverb phrases Adverbs and adverb phrases are chiefly used as modifier in phrases and as adverbials in clauses or sentences. They completely ignored my views.(modifier of verbs ) He had unusually deep voice. I am feeling kind of tired. /I thought his answers were pretty good on the whole.(modifier of adjective) He derives extremely carelessly./The French team did really well in the first round.(modifier of adverbs) There is a house right in front of you. His parents are dead against the trip. (modifier of preposition) Virtually all the students took part in the discussion.(modifier of determiner) It takes quite some time. She is rather a fool./The news came as quite a shock. (modifier of nouns or whole noun phrases )
Chief uses of adverbs and adverb phrases Adverbs and adverb phrases are chiefly used as modifier in phrases and as adverbials in clauses or sentences. They completely ignored my views.(modifier of verbs ) He had unusually deep voice. I am feeling kind of tired. (modifier of adjective) He derives extremely carelessly.(modifier of adverbs) There is a house right in front of you. His parents are dead against the trip. (modifier of preposition) Virtually all the students took part in the discussion.(modifier of determiner) It takes quite some time. She is rather a fool.(modifier of nouns or whole noun phrases )
Few adverbs as modifiers of whole noun phrases The way ahead, the direction back, the hall downstairs, the noise backstage, the trip abroad, his journey home, the sentence below, the photo above, your friend here, that man there, a step forward, the neighbors upstairs, the meeting yesterday, the meal afterwards, the day before, their stay overnight Some of the adverbs cited above can also be used as pre-modifiers, but theses uses of adverbs are mostly found in informal styles: the backstage noise, the then capital of the country, his home journey
1.Financially well-off is very important for me 2.I am greatly interested in history. I spend a lot of money and time on it. 3.I want a job I really like. Salary is the second concern.
Adverb phrases as adverbial in clauses or sentences As a clause element, adverb phrases are chiefly used as adjuncts, disjuncts, and conjuncts. Generally speaking, time adjuncts may occur at all the three positions: Recently they had an accident. They had an accident recently. They recently had an accident. By contrast, manner/place adjuncts appear more often at the end position: They live frugally. He always drives carefully. The porter will take your luggage upstairs. I could not find it though I had looked everywhere.
Disjuncts and conjuncts Frankly, I can do nothing about it. Briefly, she did not want to speak to him. Do it now. Otherwise, it will be too late. Tom has not arrived yet. He may, however, come later.
Structure The underlined part in each of the examples below is an independent element of the other parts of the sentence in terms of grammar. Independent elements are often set off by commas or dashes. Naturally, the name change didn’t cause Debbie/ Lynne’s professional achievement. Apparently, such prejudices can affect classroom achievement as well.
Sentence Adverbs Disjuncts and conjuncts Economically, the current government has been a resounding success. Although economically successful, the government is starting to lose the popularity. Incidentally, I noticed they were looking for new players down at the Red Lion. I don ’ t think he knows what he is talking about, frankly. Admittedly,apparently, fortunately, frankly, incidentally/by the way, understandably
Sentence Adverbs and Adjuncts Despite being in a zoo, the animals behaved quite naturally. Naturally, wild animals behave quite differently in captivity. The teacher answered the question clearly and precisely. Clearly, the teacher did not answer the question.
烟草业，再加上好来坞电影 —— 影片中的男女主 角都是老烟鬼 —— 把像我父亲那样的人完完全全 争取了过去, 他们无可救药地抽烟上了瘾。 1. The tobacco industry, coupled with Hollywood movies in which both male and female heroes smoked like chimneys, completely won over people like my father, who were hopelessly hooked by cigarettes. 下一页 Exercises — Translation Into Chinese
久而久之，人们不但缺少食物，而且还缺少空气， 这样不但大大地削弱了孩子们的体质，还使他们 染上了烟瘾，最终还会致他们于死地。 2. … over time, people starve themselves of both food and air, effectively weakening and hooking their children, eventually killing themselves. Exercises — Translation Into Chinese
抽烟是一种自我毁灭，而且也毁灭着那些不得不 坐在你身边的人。那些人偶尔也会取笑或抱怨抽 烟，可常常只能无可奈何地坐在一边看。 3. Smoking is a form of self-battering that also batters those who must sit by, occasionally joke or complain, and helplessly watch. Exercises — Translation Into Chinese
1. 显然，他总以为自己的学历和工作经历肯定会给 人深刻的印象, 但实际并非如此。 Obviously, he takes it for granted that his educational background and work experience are surely impressive. But actually they are not. obviously educational background work experience take it for granted Exercises — Translation Into English
2. 人们穿着体面的衣服，成群结队地去广场参加庆 祝会。 dressed themselves decently flocked to People dressed themselves decently and flocked to the square for the celebration. Exercises — Translation Into English
Compare Drive slowly onto the ferry; The workers decided to go slow. Watch closely what I do./He lives close to the school. He arrive too late for the train. /His studies have not been improving lately. He braked hard( 尽力地） when he saw the cat. /We hardly （几乎不） know our neighbors.
Compare We flew direct ( 不停溜地） from La Guardia to Houston. 、 Don ’ t go. I ’ ll be with you directly （立刻， 很快）. He lifted it high （很高） over his head. /Arsenic is highly （非常） toxic. Turn right （向右 )at the crossroads. /The tribunal rightly( 公正地） condemned the war criminals. We got into the concert free./Sheep roam freely over the hills. We explored deep into the jungle. /I ’ am deeply ashamed of my behavior.
Correction Monthly I get paid. (×) ⅹ She arrives always by taxi and she always is on time. (×) I don ’ t sometimes understand his arguments. He hasn ’ t still convinced me. (×) They watch television hardly ever. (×) These days I eat deserts rarely. (×) I get paid monthly. She always arrives by taxi and she is always on time. I sometimes don ’ t understand his arguments. He still hasn ’ t convinced me. They hardly ever watch television. These days I eat deserts very rarely. Often, rarely 和 seldom 置 于后位时，必须与 very 或 quite 连用。