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Subtopic 5: The Adverbial Phrase Tom Morton IV-bis 205

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1 Subtopic 5: The Adverbial Phrase Tom Morton IV-bis 205

2 3.5 The Adverbial Phrase Before looking at Adverbial Phrases, lets take a quick look at adverbs. Note that the label “adverb” applies to sets of words which are very different: –Descriptive Adverb: quickly, narrowly, madly, probably, etc. (Adjunct, Disjunct) –Adverbs of place and time: here, there, now, today, below, above, east (Adjunct, Subj, Obj, etc.) –Wh words: why, when, where, how, what. –Intensifiers, etc. : more-less, most-least, very, particularly, slightly, totally (Premod. for adj, adverb) –Postmodifying adverbs: years ago, quick enough 1. Classes of Adverbs

3 3.5 The Adverbial Phrase These 5 sets appear in very different syntactic contexts, and thus should not really be put in the same class. The rest of this class on “adverbial phrases” will talk only of the descriptive adverbs. –These adverbs typically expresses qualities of processes and situations (while the adjective expresses qualities of people and things) 1. Classes of Adverbs

4 3.5 The Adverbial Phrase Most descriptive adverbs are formed by adding –ly to an adjective: –bad -> badly, quick -> quickly, probable -> probably Some have no suffix, but correspond to adjectives: – She runs well, She hits hard, She arrived late. N + -wise/-ways/-wards: sidewise,sideways,forwards 2. Forms of Descriptive Adverbs

5 3.5 The Adverbial Phrase Structure of the AdvP: (Premod) ^ Head ^ (PostMod) –Most typical is the Head by itself: He runs quickly –Sometimes a premodifier: very quickly Premodifier: –Grade: very, unusually, quite, etc. –Comparison: more: he runs more slowly Postmodifiers: –He swam quickly enough (sufficiency) –He swam so fast that I couldn’t catch him. –H e runs more slowly than me (comparison) 3. Structure of Descriptive Adverbial Phrases

6 3.5 The Adverbial Phrase In clauses: –Adjunct: He studies hard. I completely forgot it. –Disjunct: Fortunately, it didn’t rain. In phrases: –Modifier in AdjPs, AdvPs, NPs and PPs: nearly there; the then President; right through the wall. –Qualifier in AdjPs, AdvPs, NPs: quick enough; quickly enough; the journey back. –Complement of preposition (completive): over here. 4. Syntactic functions of Descriptive AdvPs

7 3.5 The Adverbial Phrase Meanings of descriptive adverbs: Manner (hesitantly, suspiciously), Respect (artistically, financially). Temporal: (daily, briefly, firstly). Modal: possibility (certainly), restriction (hardly), necessity (necessarily), volition (unwillingly), viewpoint (healthwise), emphasis (plainly, obviously), judgement (wisely, rightly), attitude (hopefully, thankfully) Degree: comparison (more, less, most), intensification (all alone, quite happy), attenuation (slightly, somewhat), approximation (about / roughly 20 people). Focusing: restriction (merely, solely), reinforcement (even, as well). … 5. Semantic Functions of Descriptive Adverbs

8 3.5 The Adverbial Phrase Meanings of adverbs (cont.) Conjunctive (logical connection): sequence, equation (likewise), reinforcement (furthermore), conclusion (altogether), apposition (namely), result (consequently, so), alternation (otherwise), contrast (or rather), opposition (instead), concession (however, nevertheless), transition (now, then). 5. Semantic Functions of Descriptive Adverbs

9 3.5 The Adverbial Phrase Forms of Space and Time adverbs: –These adverbs not formed by addition of –ly suffix: –Most act as reference to some point of time or place: now, then, today, yesterday, tomorrow, here, there, down, up, always, never –Some are relative to another position, formed by adding a- in front: –above, across, ahead, along, aside, etc. –Adv. beginning with Adv. beginning with be- indicating position or direction: before, behind, below, beneath, besides, between, beyond –Compound: downhill, elsewhere 7. Forms of Space and Time adverbs Adverbs

10 CIRCUMSTANTIAL: SPACE, TIME, MANNER STANCE: (Certainty, doubt, emphasis, judement, attititude) DEGREE: COMPARING, INTENSIFYING FOCUSING ADVERBS: RESTRICTING THE SCOPE CONNECTIVE ADVERBS: LOGICAL CONNECTION Put the chairs here Push it down See you later Watch carefully You’re definitely right Hopefully, it won’t rain tomorrow He looks quite happy It’s kind of strange He is just interested in money She didn’t even say goodbye They know he’s corrupt, yet they vote for him I was tired, so I went home.

11 I could see my studio from where I stood, an old boathouse down by the water-wall. A bit rotten in places, but I had been glad to get it... When I had my canvas up it was two feet off the ground, which just suited me. I like to keep my pictures above dog level. "Well", I thought, "the walls and roof are there. They haven't got blown away, yet. No-one has leaned up against them." I was pleased, but I didn't go along in a hurry. One thing at a time. Last time I was locked up, I left a regular establishment behind. Nice little wife, two kids, flat and a studio with a tin roof. Water-tight all round.... When I came back, there was nothing. Wife and kids had gone back to her mama. Flat let to people who didn't even know my name. My cartoons, drawings, ladders, they'd just melted. I hadn't expected to see the fryingpan and kettle again. You can't leave things like that about for a month in a friendly neighbourhood and expect to find them in the same place. When I came back from gaol, even the smell had gone. Joyce Cary The Horse’s Mouth (in Downing & Locke, 2006: 505)

12 Types of meanings expressed by Adverbs… SPACE, POSITION where down up there behind about (indeterminate) SPACE, DIRECTION away along back DEGREE, INTENSFICATION just up all round SCALAR (+ or – than expected) even (1) FOCUSING BY REINFORCEMENT just even (2) TIME, FREQUENCY again TIME, RELATION yet DISCOURSE MARKER (ATTITUDE OF ACCEPTANCE) well

13 CIRCUMSTANTIAL: elsewhere, anywhere MODAL: incredibly, perhaps, probably FOCUSING: especially, even, too (= also), alone DEGREE: roughly, about, approximately, enough, quite, so

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