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The Cloud – Computing for the Masses

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1 The Cloud – Computing for the Masses
Software as a Service (SaaS) and Cloud Computing Association of Knowledge Workers, Lucknow; Indian Industries Association Lucknow, 13 March 2010 Asoke K. Talukder, Ph.D Corporate Advisor, Sahara Next, Lucknow Director, Geschickten Solutions, Bangalore Adjunct Professor, National Institute of Technology, Warangal Adjunct Professor, Indian Institute of information Technology & Management, Gwalior Adjunct Faculty, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 1/50 Picture of the Cloud: Wikipedia

2 The Cloud 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 2/50 Source: Wikipedia

3 About the Speaker Dr. Asoke K. Talukder worked for companies like Fujitsu-ICIM, Microsoft, Oracle, Informix, Digital, Hewlett Packard, ICL, Sequoia, Northern Telecom, NEC, KredietBank, iGate, Cellnext, etc. Dr. Asoke authored two textbooks and edited two books; he also published many peer-reviewed research papers. He is recipient of many international awards including All India Radio/Doordarshan award, ICIM Professional Excellence Award, ICL Excellence Award, IBM Solutions Excellence Award, Simagine GSMWorld Award etc. Dr. Asoke has been listed in “Who’s Who in the World”, “Who’s Who in Science and Engineering”, and “Outstanding Scientists of 21st Century”. He did M.Sc (Physics) and Ph.D in Engineering. He was the DaimlerChrysler Chair Professor at IIIT, Bangalore; currently an Adjunct Professor, Department of Computer Science & Engineering, NIT Warangal, Adjunct Professor, ABV Indian Institute of Information Technology & Management, Gwalior, and Adjunct Faculty Department of Computer Engineering, NITK, Surathkal. He is Corporate Advisor to SaharaNext and Chief Scientific Officer, Geschickten Solutions, Bangalore. 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 3/50

4 Cloud Computing in India
Economic Times, 11th February 2010 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 4/50

5 What is Cloud Computing?
13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 5/50

6 Computing in the Cloud 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 6/50
Source: 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 6/50

7 Cloud Computing Defined
Cloud computing is an emerging computing paradigm where data and applications reside in the cyberspace, it allows users to access their data and information through any web-connected device be it fixed or mobile. Source: John B. Horrigan, Use of Cloud Computing Applications & Services, Data memo, PEW Internet & American Life project, September 2008 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 7/50

8 We all (?) use The Cloud 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 8/50

9 Characteristics of Cloud Computing
Virtual – Physical location and underlying infrastructure details are transparent to users Scalable – Able to break complex workloads into pieces to be served across an incrementally expandable infrastructure Efficient – Services Oriented Architecture for dynamic provisioning of shared compute resources Flexible – Can serve a variety of workload types – both consumer and commercial 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 9/50

10 Types of the Cloud Private Cloud Public Cloud Hybrid Cloud
Cloud Computing private to an enterprise Public Cloud Cloud Computing where the cloud services are offered by Cloud Vendors and anybody can use & deploy their services in this cloud Hybrid Cloud Combination of Private & Public Cloud 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 10/50

11 Private Cloud Private cloud will be implemented by enterprises for their own private use. This will mainly be available to enterprise’s customers, employees, partners, and suppliers. This will mainly be to reduce the cost and have a centralized management of the data. Private cloud will be a extension of the data centre within the control of the enterprise; in private cloud an enterprise can implement a security policy and control people and hardware resource with respect to privacy and access. Amazon book store is an example of private cloud. 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 11/50

12 Public Cloud The public cloud can be defined as the outsourcing model for computing, hardware, and storage functions to a third party service provider, which hosts applications on cyberspace through linked services. Source: Cristos Velasco San Martin, Jurisdictional Aspects of Cloud Computing, February 28, 2009 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 12/50

13 Hybrid Cloud Source: Wikipedia 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 13/50

14 Commercial Clouds 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 14/50

15 Cloud Computing User – I (Amir)
13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 15/50

16 Cloud Computing User – II (Fakir)
13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 16/50

17 Next Generation Internet
Multi-user-agent Multi-service Multi-access Multi-provider Multi-protocol networks Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 Innovation moving from Technology Companies to the Consumer space IPv6 with IPsec Universal seamless roaming Support mobility at vehicular state Intelligent and programmable networks Definable service quality Definable security level On demand scalability API in the network to obtain context information (spatial, environmental, and temporal attributes) API in the network to enforce QoS and security 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 17/50

18 Intel's New SCC (Single Chip Cloud Computer) – a 48-core Processor
Intel debuted and demonstrated its Single-chip Cloud Computer (SCC) processor on 2nd December The processor has 48 cores – 24 dual-core "tiles"--connected with a high-speed mesh network. Intel wants the experimental chip, at least 100 of which it will distribute to researchers in 2010, to lead to new attempts to tackle multicore system and software design. Ultimately, Intel believes its aggressive multicore approach will be the way computers get enough power for tasks such as vision and speech comparable to what humans have. 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 18/50 18

19 Benefits of the Cloud Helping Green computing by lending out idle resources through Cycle Scavenging Unlimited Resource Unlimited Computing power Unlimited storage (Filestore & online memory) Scale UP or Scale Down On-demand Users can use resources without owning anything – converting Capex to Opex Enterprises can use Supercomputers/HPC without owning them Pay as you go 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 19/50

20 Virtual Infrastructure
13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 20/50

21 Key Technology: Virtualization
Hardware Operating System App Traditional Stack OS Hypervisor Virtualized Stack 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 21/50

22 Virtualization Virtualization is a framework or methodology of dividing the resources of a computer into multiple execution environments, by applying one or more concepts or technologies such as hardware and software partitioning, time-sharing, partial or complete machine simulation, emulation, quality of service, and many others. It allows abstraction and isolation of lower-level functionalities and underlying hardware. This enables portability of higher-level functions and sharing and/or aggregation of the physical resources. There are lots of virtualization products, all mainframe OS of the past were virtual like MVS, VMS, VME etc Today’s virtual environments are VMware1, Xen - an open source Linux-based product developed by XenSource2 etc 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 22/50

23 Virtual Infrastructure Management
SaaS PaaS IaaS 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 23/50

24 Cloud Computing Stack Network/Internet Generation Next 13th March 2010
Facilities Hardware Integration & Middleware Data Metadata Content Application API Presentation Modality Presentation Platform Infrastructure as a Service Platform as a Service Software as a Service Connectivity & delivery QoE & QoS SECU R I T Y User/ Customer/ Device M D L E W A Original Cloud Provider Cloud Vendor Cloud User Next Gen Network Network/Internet Generation Next 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 24/50

25 Original Cloud Providers
Application Services (services on demand) Gmail, GoogleCalender Payroll, HR, CRM etc Sugarm CRM, IBM Lotus Live Platform Services (resources on demand) Middleware, Intergation, Messaging, Information, connectivity etc AWS, IBM Virtual images, Boomi, CastIron, Google Appengine Infrastructure Services (physical assets as services) IBM Blue house, VMWare, Amazon EC2, Microsoft Azure Platform, Sun Parascale and more 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 25/50

26 Cloud Vendor “Cloud Vendor” is a virtual organization (may/may not own any infrastructure, platform or software) – it will use resources from various vendors and original providers (OCP – Original Cloud Providers) to offer services that meet certain service level agreements (SLA) with guaranteed Quality of Expectation (QoE) and Quality of Service (QoS) Source: Asoke K Talukder, Lawrence Zimmerman, and Prahalad H.A, Cloud Economics: Principles, Costs and Benefits, book chapter in the book titled Cloud Computing: Principles, Systems and Applications, Edited by Nick Antonopoulos and Dr Lee Gillam, Published by Springer London, to appear 2010 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 26/50

27 Clouds and SOA SOA is the architecture of Cloud Computing
Physical infrastructure like SOA must be discoverable, manageable and governable 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 27/50

28 IaaS Rather than purchasing servers, software, data center space or network equipment, clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. The service is typically billed on a utility computing basis and amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity. It is an evolution of virtual private server offerings Cloud infrastructure services or "Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)" delivers computer infrastructures like, Processors/CPUs Memory Storages Networking Source: Wikipedia 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 28/50

29 Datacenter (real IaaS)
Maximilien Brice, © CERN 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 29/50

30 PaaS Cloud platform services or "Platform as a Service (PaaS)" deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service, often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers Source: Wikipedia 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 30/50

31 SaaS Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet, eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. Key characteristics include: Network-based access to, and management of, commercially available (i.e., not custom) software Activities that are managed from central locations rather than at each customer's site, enabling customers to access applications remotely via the Web Application delivery that typically is closer to a one-to-many model (single instance, multi-tenant architecture) than to a one-to-one model, including architecture, pricing, partnering, and management characteristics Centralized feature updating, which obviates the need for downloadable patches and upgrades. Source: Wikipedia 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 31/50

32 Cloud Challenges 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 32/50

33 Parallelization Problems
How do we assign work units to workers? What if we have more work units than workers? What if workers need to share partial results? How do we aggregate partial results? How do we know all the workers have finished? What if workers die? What is the common theme of all of these problems? 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 33/50 33

34 Divide and Conquer Partition Combine “Work” w1 w2 w3 r1 r2 r3 “Result”
“worker” “worker” “worker” r1 r2 r3 Combine “Result” 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 34/50

35 MapReduce Generalized Framework Master k1:v1 k3:v2 k1:v1,v2 Split 1
Worker Worker Output 1 Split 2 k2:v4,v5 k1:v3 k2:v4 Worker Worker Output 2 Split 3 k3:v2 Split 4 Worker Worker Output 3 k2:v5 k4:v6 k4:v6 Map Sort/Group Reduce Input Files Intermediate files Output files back 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 35/50

36 Open Source MapReduce Hadoop Twister
Implemented in Java enabled on Amazon Twister Lightweight New arrival in town 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 36/50

37 Security in the Cloud Security in the cloud needs to answer few specific questions like, How much trust do you have on virtualized environment or the hypervisors in the cloud as against your own physical hardware? How much trust do you have on cloud vendor versus your own infrastructure? How do you address regulatory and compliance requirement in an environment when your application might be running on an infrastructure in a foreign country? 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 37/50

38 Security & Scalability-aware Software Development Life Cycle (SaSDLC)
Security Requirement Analysis Step 1 – Functional Requirements using UML Step 2 – Identification of Assets Step 3 – Separation of Concerns Step 4 – Decision on Deployment and Interfaces Step 5 – Minimizing the Attack Surface Step 6 – Security Requirements Step 7 – Threat and Attack Tree Step 8 – Rating of Risks Step 9 – Decision on In-vivo Security versus In-vitro Security Step 10 – Nonfunctional to Functional Requirement Step 11 – Iterate Security Design Secure and Safe Construction/Programming Security Testing (Fuzz, Negative, Recovery, Ethical Hacking) Secure Deployment (Firewall, IPS, Malware Catcher, OVAL, NVD, AVDL) 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 38/50

39 Service Quality and Charging
Journaling is necessary to record usage history Journaling is a critical part of any secured and reliable system Journaling helps a system to recover from failure through either roll-back or roll-forward Usage records are used at a later time to charge and bill a consumer Journaling is also used for forensic purposes to recreate the crime scene of a security attack 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 39/50

40 Scalability and Availability
Scalability in the cloud applications needs to be dynamic Applications need to react to external events such as increased load, augmented reliability etc In the cloud, there will be no association between the service and the underlying platform and infrastructure The cloud user / customer may like to use some resource somewhere in the world that offers the best price performance advantage 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 40/50

41 Location of Data This is important issue that should be considered in the cloud environment. There are laws related to both what can be stored and what can be transferred (into and out of) countries. Some country’s laws say that the data should not be stored outside of the country. 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 41/50

42 Multi Tenancy This is resultant of virtualization, where two or more cloud vendors share the same resource from an original cloud provider. There should be clean and clear way to ensure that other tenants are not gaining access to other parties’ data. This is also called data anonymity. 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 42/50

43 Business Continuity and Data Retention
Cloud vendors have data recovery and business continuity plans in place to ensure that service can be maintained in case of a disaster or an emergency and that any data lost will be recovered. These plans are shared with and reviewed by their customers so that business continues even if the cloud vendor/provider goes out of business. 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 43/50

44 Data Protection This is to ensure that only the authorized and legitimate users access or stored data in the cloud. Also, if necessary, the country where the data is hosted can be examined by the law enforcement agencies. HIPPA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) in the US also prohibits certain types of access on healthcare data. Sarbanes Oxley demands certain types of accounting practices to be followed be enterprises. On 5th February 2010, the European Commission has adopted a decision updating the standard contractual clauses for the transfer of personal data to processors established in non-EU countries that are not recognised as offering an adequate level of data protection. The USA Patriot Act was passed that allows certain government organizations to examine any data within USA. RIPA (The Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act) can be invoked by the UK government officials specified in the Act on the grounds of national security. Compliance environments that experts cite as important for cloud computing included auditing-related standard SAS 70, Payment Card Industry Data Security Standards (PCI DSS) and FISMA. 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 44/50

45 Accounting Logs & Audit Trails
In addition to producing logs and audit trails, cloud vendors (providers) work with their customers to ensure that these logs and audit trails are properly secured, maintained for as long as the customer requires, and are accessible for the purposes of forensic investigation (e.g., eDiscovery). 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 45/50

46 Which Laws Apply Another considerable issue is which laws apply? An example a client based in USA, using cloud services of a company registered in Europe and having services in Asia. These are issues that need to be clarified and understood clearly. It will be difficult for a service provider to provide conformance to all international standards and be economical at the same time. Further there might be instances when it will just not be possible to confirm to all as there may contrasting views. 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 46/50

47 Legal and Contractual Issues
Aside from the security and compliance issues enumerated above, cloud providers and their customers will negotiate terms around liability (stipulating how incidents involving data loss or compromise will be resolved, for example), intellectual capital, and end-of-service (when data and applications are ultimately returned to the customer). 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 47/50

48 Taxation & Regulatory Issues
The Cloud-vendor will be a company with Tax registration on the country of operation The Original Cloud Provider will be taxed on the country of operation – some tax benefits will be there for export of service Regulatory authorities will ensure that data privacy and data transportation related policies are enforced No matter what the customers want, Cloud Provider must conform to the law of the land 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 48/50

49 Policy Enforcement 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 49/50
Inventory for Services, Resources 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 49/50

50 Thank You 13th March 2010 Cloud Computing - 50/50

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