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The internal structure of sentences The basic pattern of the simple English sentence will include the following: (Adjunct) Subject Predicate (Object) (Complement)

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Presentation on theme: "The internal structure of sentences The basic pattern of the simple English sentence will include the following: (Adjunct) Subject Predicate (Object) (Complement)"— Presentation transcript:

1 The internal structure of sentences The basic pattern of the simple English sentence will include the following: (Adjunct) Subject Predicate (Object) (Complement) (Adjunct)ASPOCA Fortunately we elected Ahmed president. Fortunately we elected Ahmed president. The building collapsed. The building collapsed. Subject predicate Subject predicate

2 Adjunct An Adjunct: it is a modifying form, word, or phrase which depends on some other form, word, or phrase, especially an element of clause structure with adverbial function. It is a part of the sentence that may be omitted without making the sentence ungrammatical. Adjunct is mobile in the sentence Suddenly Suddenly the building collapsed. suddenly The building suddenly collapsed. suddenly. The building collapsed suddenly.

3 Complement Complements function to express qualities or attributes of or to identify the Complements function to express qualities or attributes of or to identify the subjects or objects they modify Different sentences may include a subject or object complement. Mary is a nice teacher. Mary is a nice teacher. He became rich. He became rich. Similar sentences include verbs like be, become, seem, appear, grow, turn. These verbs take complements. He is my teacher. He is my teacher. He seems happy He seems happy All the previous complements are called subject complement since they provide information on the subject. All the previous complements are called subject complement since they provide information on the subject.

4 Complement … cont’d Object complements provide information on the object: Object complements provide information on the object: We elected Sami president. We elected Sami president. We nominated Ahmed chairman. We nominated Ahmed chairman. I made her happy I made her happy

5 Activity Decide the sentence pattern in each of the following sentences (SVO, SO, SVC, etc): The dog is running The man saw the dog The car is ready I gave Huda a book We called John a fool

6 Grammaticality, acceptability and interpretability 1. Grammatical: A piece of language is “grammatical” if it does not break any of the rules of standard language. The young man bought the expensive car. The young man bought the expensive car. * The man young bought car expensive the * The man young bought car expensive the 2. Acceptable: In certain constructions we cannot accept three ore more consecutive verbs in a sentence. The cat that the dog that man hit chased died. The cat that the dog that man hit chased died.

7 Ambiguity Another type of unacceptability is referred to as ambiguity. Ambiguity: Sentences can be interpreted in two different words: Ambiguity: Sentences can be interpreted in two different words: A- Structural ambiguity: where a structure is capable of more than one interpretation: Visiting relatives can be boring Visiting relatives can be boring Flying planes can be dangerous. Flying planes can be dangerous. I cannot stand old men and women. I cannot stand old men and women.

8 Ambiguity … cont’d B- Lexical ambiguity: when the ambiguity resides in the word. That is, ambiguity may be due to the meaning of the lexical item. The Qadi married my sister. The Qadi married my sister. She cannot bear children. She cannot bear children. Ambiguous sentences can lead to problems in interpretation. In speech, ambiguity can be resolved by the situation or the context or intonation and stress. However, in the written medium, it is often impossible to interpret the structures. Ambiguous sentences can lead to problems in interpretation. In speech, ambiguity can be resolved by the situation or the context or intonation and stress. However, in the written medium, it is often impossible to interpret the structures.

9 Activity A )- Give the two possible meanings of each of the following sentences: A )- Give the two possible meanings of each of the following sentences: 1. The lamb is too hot to eat. 2. Ali loves Huda more than Rania 3. He waited for me by the bank. 4. The children drew five squares and triangles.

10 Interpretability 3- Interpretability does not depend directly on grammaticality as in the case of non- standard dialects. He seen him yesterday. He seen him yesterday. She be a doctor. She be a doctor. He ain't here. He ain't here.

11 Interpretability However, sometimes interpretability is difficult when, for example, an inanimate subject collocates with a verb that needs an animate subject. However, sometimes interpretability is difficult when, for example, an inanimate subject collocates with a verb that needs an animate subject. Gentleness admired the view. Gentleness admired the view. Happiness broke his leg. Happiness broke his leg. Colorless green ideas sleep furiously. Colorless green ideas sleep furiously. Poetic license is an exception. Poetic license is an exception.

12 Types of Sentences Stative Sentences: they are sentences which have verbs such as 'copula' be and other copula-like verbs (seem, become, remain, look, taste, etc). They are called stative or linking verbs because they link the subjects to their subject complements, e.g. Stative Sentences: they are sentences which have verbs such as 'copula' be and other copula-like verbs (seem, become, remain, look, taste, etc). They are called stative or linking verbs because they link the subjects to their subject complements, e.g. Ali is a soldier Ali is a soldier Ali seems worried Ali seems worried Ali became a merchant Ali became a merchant

13 Types of Sentences Arabic possesses similar linking verbs: Arabic possesses similar linking verbs: علي جندي علي جندي يبدو ان علي قلقٌ يبدو ان علي قلقٌ اصبح عليٌ تاجرا اصبح عليٌ تاجرا

14 Types of Sentences Non-stative Sentences: they include verbs which designate actions or activities whether they are physical or mental. These verbs can be transitive or intransitive Non-stative Sentences: they include verbs which designate actions or activities whether they are physical or mental. These verbs can be transitive or intransitive Ali killed the snake Ali killed the snake Maha cleans her room every morning Maha cleans her room every morning The teacher gave the student a prize The teacher gave the student a prize

15 Nominal Sentences A nominal sentence is a sentence that begins with a noun, e.g. Ahmed came to school أحمد جاء الى المدرسة A nominal sentence is a sentence that begins with a noun, e.g. Ahmed came to school أحمد جاء الى المدرسة All English sentences are nominal ones. All English sentences are nominal ones. Besides NP's, nominal clauses can function as subjects 1. That-clause: That he retired at this age surprised us all. 2. Wh-clause: Why he resigned is not clear to me. 3. To-V clause: To travel by train costs $ V-ing clause: Typing all these reports costs a lot of money

16 Nominal Sentences Arabic nominal sentence differs from the English one in the suffix which is added to the verb which is in agreement with respect to number, gender and person: Arabic nominal sentence differs from the English one in the suffix which is added to the verb which is in agreement with respect to number, gender and person: البنتان كتبتا الولدان كتبا الاولاد كتبوا أنا أكتب الولد كتب الطلاب يكتبون أنا أكتب الولد كتب الطلاب يكتبون

17 Verbal Sentences 2- Verbal Sentence is a sentence that begins with a verb; Arabic uses this sentence abundantly while English does not have this type of sentences. كتبوا دروسهم (They) wrote their lessons

18 Verbless Sentences 3- Verbless Sentence is a sentence without a verb as in exclamations: what a day! In Arabic a nominal sentence may contain a verb or may not: علي ولد مؤدب علي يتكلم بطلاقة علي ولد مؤدب علي يتكلم بطلاقة Which nominal Arabic sentences are verbless? The sentence must refer to the present time. If the time is non-present, a verb must be used to mark future or past time, e.g. Which nominal Arabic sentences are verbless? The sentence must refer to the present time. If the time is non-present, a verb must be used to mark future or past time, e.g. الولد هُنا كان الولد هُنا سيكون الولد هُنا الولد هُنا كان الولد هُنا سيكون الولد هُنا

19 Auxiliary Sentences 4- An auxiliary sentence is one that begins with an auxiliary. It is usually called a yes-no question, e.g. Did he come yesterday? Did he come yesterday? Such sentences exist in English, but not in Arabic. Such sentences exist in English, but not in Arabic.

20 Elements of the Arabic nominal Sentence An Arabic nominal sentence consists of a subject (مبتدأ) and a predicate (خبر). The subject must be a nominal element; the predicate may be sentential or non-sentential 1.1 The subject المبتدأ 1.1 The subject المبتدأ i. Noun: الرياضة مفيدة للجسم ii. Pronoun: هو غائب iii. Verbal noun: قول الحقيقة مريح

21 Elements of the Arabic nominal Sentence 1.2 The predicate الخبر i. Noun: نور العلم ii. Adjective : الاسعار مرتفعة iii. Prepositional phrase: لله الحمد iv. Locative adverb: النهر تحت الجسر v. Temporal adverb: غدا الاجتماع vi. Nominal sentence: محمد أبوه مريض vii. Verbal sentence: الطبيب حضر مبكرا

22 Elements of the Arabic Verbal Sentence A simple verbal sentence may be described in terms of four elements: A simple verbal sentence may be described in terms of four elements: 1- Verb and Object: a verb is either intransitive لازم or transitive متعدي intransitive: نام الطفل Transitive verbs can be: monotransitive: استقبل علي الضيف ditransitive: أعطيت الولد هدية

23 Elements of the Arabic Verbal Sentence 2- Subject الفاعل : the agent is either: - اسم صريحexplicit noun حضر الرئيس or - ضمير مستتر implicit pronoun جاء متأخرا 3- Deputy Agent نائب الفاعل in the passive sentence the object of the corresponding active sentence becomes a deputy agent. أُعطي الفائز جائزة أُعطي الفائز جائزة

24 Elements of the Arabic Verbal Sentence 4- Adverbial الظرف : An adverbial can be realised by adverbs, prepositional phrases and the circumstantial accusative الحال Adverb: جاء أمس Adverb: جاء أمس Prepositional Phrase: إلى المدرسة ذهب Prepositional Phrase: إلى المدرسة ذهب Circumstantial accusative: نائمًا رأيته Circumstantial accusative: نائمًا رأيته

25 Types of mistakes by Arab learners: 1- Omission of be and have - Ahmed in the house - The book with me 2- Verb- subject instead of subject-verb order - Reads the boy his lesson - laughs the boy 3- Repetition of the subject as a pronoun - The only son in the family he creates a lot of trouble. - Students they are allowed to change their subjects.

26 Types of mistakes by Arab learners: 4- Lack of subject-verb agreement - There is no machines in the field - Men does not care about this. - One of the problems are about pollution. 5- Negation - Not the man doctor - He does not gone - He not writes his homework. 6- Questions - can ride the children? - What her fate will be? - How the students are studying?

27 Types of mistakes by Arab learners: 7- Difficulty with do - Why we learn English? - Do I must study this course? 8- Use of wrong verb form - Have they never go to a restaurant? 9- Wrong tag question - You visited him, isn't it? 10- Commands - omission of do: Not play here. - use of no instead of not: no play here

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