the duke has given my aunt that teapot my aunthas been given that teapot by the duke that teapotthe duke has given to my aunt ThemeRheme
The Queen of Heartsshe made some tarts The man in the wildernesssaid to me For want of a nailthe shoe was lost With sobs and tearshe sorted out those of the largest size ThemeRheme
group /phrase complex as Theme: The Walrus and the Carpenterwere walking close at hand Tom, Tom, the piper’s sonstole a pig and away it run From house to houseI wend my way ThemeRheme
Thematic equatives: What the duke gave to my auntwas that teapot The one who gave my aunt that teapotwasthe duke The one the duke gave that teapot towasmy aunt What the duke did with that teapotwas give it to mu aunt How my aunt came by that teapotwasshe was given it by the duke ThemeRheme
A Theme that is something other than the Subject, in a declarative clause, is a MARKED THEME. The most usual form of a marked Theme is : Adverbial group: today, suddenly, somewhat distractedly Prepositional phrase: at night, in the corner, without much hope Complement: nature I loved this responsibility we accept wholy ThemeRheme
Canyoufind me an acre of land? Is anybody at home? Should old acquaintance be forgot? Theme 1Theme 2Rheme ThemeRheme
ELEMENTS WITH SPECIAL STATUS IN THE THEMATIC STRUCTURE conjunctive and modal adjuncts: conjunctive adjuncts modal adjuncts conjunctions and relatives: conjunctions relatives
What’s the difference ? CONJUNCTIVE ADJUNCTS relate the clause to the preceding text. Alternatively known as discourse Adjuncts. AFTER THAT ONCE UPON A TIME ONLY HOWEVER AT ANY RATE PRESENTLY MODAL ADJUNCTS express the speaker’s judgement regarding the relevance of the message. OF COURSE PERHAPS IN MY OPINION LUCKILY CERTAINLY MOST OF THE TIME
CONJUNCTIVE ADJUNCTS APPOSITIVE CORRECTIVE DISMISSIVE SUMMATIVE VERIFACTIVE ADDITIVE ADVERSATIVE VARIATIVE TEMPORAL COMPARATIVE CAUSAL CONDITIONAL CONCESSIVE RESPECTIVE that is, in other words, for instance or rather, at least, to be precise in any case, anyway, leaving that aside briefly, to sum up, in conclusion actually, in fact, as a matter of fact also, moreover, in addition, besides on the other hand, however, conversely instead, alternatively meanwhile, before that, later on, next, soon, finally likewise, in the same way therefore, for this reason, as a result, with this in mind in that case, under the circumstances, otherwise nevertheless, despite that in this respect, as far as that’s concerned
MODAL ADJUNCTS PROBABILITY USUALITY OPINION ADMISSIVE ASSERTIVE PRESUMPTIVE DESIDERATIVE TENTATIVE VALIDATIVE EVALUATIVE PREDICTIVE probably, possibly, certainly usually, sometimes, always, never, for the most part, seldom, often in my opinion, from my point of view, personally, to my mind frankly, to be honest, to tell you the truth honestly, really, believe me, seriously, without any doubt evidently, apparently, no doubt, presumably [un]fortunately, to my delight, luckily, regrettably, hopefully initially, tentatively, looking back on it, provisionally broadly speaking, in general terms, on the whole, objectively, strictly speaking wisely, understandably, foolishly, by mistake to my surprise, as expected, amazingly, by chance
WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE? CONJUNCTIONS No function as Subject, Adjunct or Complement. If present, do not take up the whole of the thematic potential of the clause. examples: 1. if at first you don’t succeed. ADJUNCT 2. but the cask of pearls no-one COMPLEMENT has ever found. RELATIVES Function as Subject, Adjunct or Complement. Unlike conjunctions, they do not form a separate word class; they are either NOUNS or ADVERBS. examples: whose house in which with whom by which on whose behalf whichever way for whatever reason however badly
CONJUNCTIONS CO-ORDINATOR and or nor either neither but yet so then SUBORDINATOR when, while, before, after, until, because, if, although, unless, since, that, whether even if, in case, supporting [that], assuming [that], seeing [that], given that, provided [that], in spite of the fact that, in the event that
RELATIVES DEFINITE which who that whose when where why how INDEFINITE whatever whichever whoever whosever whenever wherever however
Multiple themes If the initial element in the clause does not function as Subject or Complement or circumstantial Adjunct, then the Subject, Complement or Adjunct next following is still part of the Theme. This introduces a MULTIPLE THEME – where the part of the clause functioning as Theme has a further, internal structure of its own. The internal structure of a multiple Theme is based on the functional principle that a clause is the product of three simultaneous semantic processes. It is one and the same time: 1. a representation of experience; 2. an interactive exchange; and 3. a message. These are the three kinds of meaning that are embodied in human language as a whole, forming the basis of the semantic organization of all natural languages. These are referred to as the IDEATIONAL, INTERPERSONAL, and TEXTUAL metafunctions.
a representation of experience ideational meaning an interactive exchange interpersonal meaning a message textual meaning
IDEATIONAL MEANING is the representation of experience: our experience of the world that lies about us, and also inside us, the world of our imagination. It is meaning in the sense of content. The ideational function of a clause is that of representing processes : actions, events, processes of consciousness, and relations. INTERPERSONAL MEANING is meaning as a form of action: the speaker or writer doing something to the listener or reader by means of language. The interpersonal function of a clause is that of exchanging roles in rhetorical interaction : statements, questions, offers and commands, together with accompanying modalities. TEXTUAL MEANING is relevance to context: both the preceding (and following) text, and the context of situation. The textual function of a clause is that of constructing a message.
The ideational element within the Theme is some entity functioning as Subject, Complement,or circumstantial Adjunct. It is called the TOPICAL THEME: it correspondends well to the ‘topic’ in topic-element analysis. The Theme of any clause, therefore, extends up to [and includes] the topical Theme. The textual element within the Theme may have any combination of [i] continuative; [ii] structural and [iii] conjunctive Themes, in that order. CONTINUATIVES are a small set of items [yes, no, well, oh, now] signalling that a new move is beginning; A STRUCTURAL THEME [conjunctions and relatives]; A CONJUNCTIVE THEME [conjunctive Adjuncts ] The interpersonal element within the Theme may be a [i] modal Theme [Adjuncts]; [ii] Finite verb; and a [iii] Vocative element. The modal Adjunct precedes the Finite (if not, it is not thematic).
CLAUSES AS THEMES Theme-Rheme is purely a structure within the clause: a structure whose elements are, therefore, basically, constituents of the clause. However, thematic organization may appear with manifestations both above the clause and below it. BELOW THE CLAUSE Both the verbal group and the nominal group incorporate the thematic principle into their own structure [as is the case with the interrogative clause where the initial position of the WH- element or the finite verb is explained on thematic grounds] ABOVE THE CLAUSE The same principle applies behind the organization of paragraphs in written discourse; the topic sentence is nothing but the Theme. E.g.: CLAUSE COMPLEX Head clause - Modifying clause Modifying clause - Head clause
THEME IN THE CLAUSE COMPLEX If winter comes can spring be far behind? Theme 1 Rheme 1 structural topical finite topical Theme 2 Rheme 2 Theme 3 Rheme 3
Predicated themes It was his teacher who persuaded him to continue. Theme Rheme
THEME IN FINITE DEPENDENT CLAUSES [ WITH CONJUNCTIONS] [I asked]whether pigs have wings [they knew] that in spring the snow would melt [he left] because his work was done structural topical Theme Rheme
THEME IN FINITE DEPENDENT CLAUSES [WITH WH- ELEMENTS] [I asked] why no one was around [they knew]which side their bread was buttered [Caesar,] whose army never lost a battle, topical Theme Rheme
THEME IN NON-FINITE DEPENDENT CLAUSES with every door being locked [we had no choice] for pigs to fly [they must grow wings] bycounting sheep [she finally fell asleep] to draw lots [first collect some pebbles] structural topical Theme Rheme
EMBEDDED CLAUSES Embedded clauses are clauses which function inside the structure of a nominal group as defining relative clauses. examples: The man who came to dinner... The day the dam broke... All personnel requiring travel permits...
MINOR CLAUSES Minor clauses are clauses with no mood or transitivity structure, typically functioning as CALLS, GREETINGS and EXCLAMATIONS They have no thematic structure either. examples: Mary ! Good night ! Well done !
ELLIPTICAL CLAUSES ANAPHORIC ELLIPTICAL CLAUSE: some part of the clause is presupposed from what has gone before, e.g. “Fire, fire!” “There’s a fire!” Rheme “Where? Where?” “Where is it?” Theme EXOPHORIC ELLIPTICAL CLAUSE: the clause is not presupposing anything from what has gone before, but simply taking advantage of the rhetorical structure of the situation, specifically the roles of speaker- listener. e.g. THIRSTY?“Are you thirsty?” NO IDEA!“I’ve no idea !”
IDEATIONAL MEANING OF THE CLAUSE EXERCISES Show the Theme-Rheme structure of the following sentences: 1.Sister Susan is sewing shirts for soldiers. 2.Does it hurt? 3.Unfortunately I haven’t experienced as much as you. 4.Two pupils were able to reach the school’s computer and managed in this way to probe its secrets. 5.Forward journeys must start on the date stamped on the ticket.
Sister Susan is sewing shirts for soldiers. Sister Susanis sewing shirts for the soldiers ThemeRheme
Does it hurt? doesithurt structuraltopical ThemeRheme
Unfortunately I haven’t experienced as much as you. unfortunately I have n’t experienced as much as you structural topical ThemeRheme
Two pupils were able to reach the school’s computer and managed in this way to probe its secrets. two pupils were able to reach the school’s computer Theme 1 Rheme 1 Theme Rheme and managed in this way to probe its secrets Theme 2 Rheme 2
Forward journeys must start on the date stamped on the ticket forward journeys must start on the date stamped on the ticket ThemeRheme