Presentation on theme: "Marketing Channel Strategy and Management"— Presentation transcript:
1Marketing Channel Strategy and Management Chapter 7Marketing Channel Strategy and ManagementBY Roger A. Kerin and Robert A. PetersonAssoc. Prof. Dr. Teoman DumanStudents: Iskra Handukic, Nedzma Begic and Azra Muratovic
2What is a marketing channel? A marketing channel consists of individuals and firms involved in the process of making a product or service available for consumption or use by consumers and industrial users.
3Role of the channel in marketing strategy ● Links a producer to buyers● Performs sales, advertising, and promotion● Influences the firm’s pricing strategy● Affects product strategy through branding policies, willingness to stock and customize offerings, install, maintain, offer credit, etc.
4The Channel-Selection Decision Fundamental Questions The marketing manager must answer the following questions:● Who are potential customers?● Where do they buy?● When do they buy?● How do they buy?● What do they buy?Avon Cosmetics example
5Traditional Marketing Channel Designs ProducerRetailers or DealersDistributors or WholesalersBrokers or AgentsUltimate Buyers
6The Design of Marketing Channels vs.INDIRECT DIST.DIRECT DIST.Use intermediaries to reach target markettypelocationdensitynumber of channel levelsContact ultimate buyers directlyusing its own sales force or distribution outletsusing the Internet through a marketing Web site or electronic storefront
7The Design of Marketing Channels Direct distribution is typically used when:● Buyers are easily identifiable● Personal selling is a major component of the communication mix● Organization has a wide variety of offerings for the target market● Sufficient resources are available
8The Design of Marketing Channels Direct distribution must be considered when:● Intermediaries are not available for reaching target markets● Intermediaries do not possess the capacity to service the requirements of target markets
9The Design of Marketing Channels Indirect distribution must be considered when:● Intermediaries can perform distribution functions more efficiently and less expensively● Customers are hard to reach directly● Organization does not have resources to perform distribution function
10The Design of Marketing Channels Electronic marketing channels employ some form of electronic communication, including the Internet, to make products and services available for consumption or use by consumers and industrial users.
12The Design of Marketing Channels Disintermediation is the elimination of traditional intermediaries and direct distribution through electronic marketing channels.
13Channel Selection at the Retail Level Channel Selection Decisions Which channel and intermediaries will provide the best coverage of the target market?Which channel and intermediaries will best satisfy the buying requirements of the target market?Which channel and intermediaries will be the most profitable?
14Channel Selection at the Retail Level Target Market Coverage ExclusiveSelectiveIntensiveRolexFabergeLevi’sSonyWrigley’sCoke
15Channel Selection at the Retail Level Effective Distribution occurs when a limited number of retail outlets account for a significant fraction of the market potential.Example: A marketer distributes the product through 40% of available outlets, but these outlets account for 80% of the market.
16Channel Selection at the Retail Level Satisfying Buyer Requirements ● Information● Convenience● Variety● Attendant services
17Channel Selection at the Retail Level Profitability ● Margins = Revenues – Channel Costs● Channel costs are:Distribution costsAdvertising costsSelling costs
18Channel Selection at Other Levels of Distribution Types of Wholesaler ● Specialty wholesalerLimited line of items within a product line● General-merchandise wholesalerWide assortment of products● General-line wholesalerComplete assortment of items in a single retailing fieldCombination
19Dual Distribution● occurs when an organization distributes its offering through two or more different marketing channels that may or may not compete for similar buyers● the main consideration is whether it will provide incremental sales revenue or cannibalize existing sales
20Dual Distribution When is it used ● own brand and private store brand ● distribution to large and small retailers● multiband strategy● geographic factors
21Dual Distribution Example Hallmark ● Sells Hallmark brand cards through Hallmark stores and selected department stores● Sells Ambassador brand cards through discount drugstore chains
22Multi-Channel Marketing Multi-channel marketing involves the blending of an electronic marketing channel and a traditional channel in ways that are mutually reinforcing in attracting, retaining, and building relationships with customers.
23Multi-Channel Marketing Justifications ● An electronic marketing channel can provide incremental revenue (Victoria’s Secret)● An electronic marketing channel can leverage the presence of a traditional channel (Ethan Allen)● Multi-channel marketing can satisfy buyer requirements (Clinique division of Estée Lauder)
24Multi-Channel Marketing Considerations ● Actual incremental revenue or merely cannibalization?● Incremental cost to launch and sustain an electronic forefront● Disintermediation – a traditional intermediary member is replaced by electronic storefront
26Satisfying Intermediary Requirements and Trade Relations Trade Relations Channel Conflict arises when one channel member believes another channel member is engaged in behavior that is preventing it from achieving its goals.
27Satisfying Intermediary Requirements and Trade Relations Sources of Channel Conflict ● Channel member bypasses another member and sells or buys direct● Uneven distribution of profit margins among channel members● Manufacturer believes channel member is not giving its products adequate attention
28Satisfying Intermediary Requirements and Trade Relations Channel Power Channel Captain is a channel member that takes on the role of coordinating, directing, and supporting other channel members.
29Satisfying Intermediary Requirements and Trade Relations Forms of Channel Captain Power ● Ability to reward or coerce other members● Expertness● Identification with a particular channel member (Referent Power)● Legitimate right to dictate the behavior of other members
30Channel-Modification Decisions Reasons ● Shifts in the geographical concentration of buyers● Inability of existing intermediaries to meet the needs of buyers● Costs of distribution
31Channel-Modification Decisions Basic Objectives Provide the best coverage of the target market soughtSatisfy the buying requirements of the target marketMaximize revenue and minimize cost
32Channel-Modification Decisions Qualitative Factors Will the change improve the effective coverage of the target markets sought? How?Will the change improve the satisfaction of buyer needs? How?Which marketing functions, if any, must be absorbed in order to make the change?Does the organization have the resources to perform new functions?What effect will the change have on other channel participants?What will be the effect of the change on the achievement of long-range organizational objectives?
33Case Study Analysis: Swisher Mower and Machine Company
34MARKETING PROBLEM DEFINITION In early 1996, Wayne Swisher, president and chief executive officer (CEO) of Swisher Mower and Machine Company (SMC) received a certified letter from a major national retail merchandise chain inquiring about a private brand distribution arrangement for SMC line of riding mowers.
35MARKETING PROBLEM DEFINITION The national retail merchandise chain expected to make an annual order of approximately 8200 units. The chain wanted to purchase the mowers at a price 5 percent lower than SMC manufacturer’s list price for its standard model. The chain wanted that the mower be different from SMC Ride King
36COMPANY OVERVIEW-Swisher Mower and Machine Company was formed in 1945 by Max Swisher.-He received his first patent for a gearbox drive assembly when he was 18-years old, he develop a self-propelled push mower utilizing this drive assembly.-He began selling these mowers to neighbors after converting his parent’s garage into small manufacturing operation
37COMPANY OVERVIEWSMC produced limited but differentiated products. SMC’s flagship product, the Ride King, was credited with the first zero-turning-radius riding mower.SMC also produced a trail-mower called T-44 with a cutting width of 44 inches. SMC planed to broaden SMC product line in 1996 by introducing a high-wheel string trimmer product, Trim-Max, a high-wheel, walk-behind product.
38COMPANY OVERVIEWAbout 75% of sales of SMC were made in non-metropolitan areas.SMC sold 30% through wholesalers, 25% through direct-to-dealer, 40% as private-label, and the rest 5% as exports.It sold the Ride King through wholesalers, who located throughout the country, focusing on farm dealers situated in the south central and southeastern US.
39INDUSTRY OVERVIEWRiding lawn mowers are classified as lawn and garden equipment with two basic configurations, the front-engine lawn tractors and rear engine riding mowers.However there are some mid-engine riding mowers on the market, such as those produced by SMC.
40INDUSTRY OVERVIEWCompetition in riding lawn mower market was fierce with ten manufacturers comprising major competitors in 1995, while SMC only occupied around 0.3%, based on sales units.All these companies made Riding mowers under a nationally branded name and at the same time were engaged in private-label production.
41INDUSTRY OVERVIEWEach riding mower manufacturer priced its products at price points.The representative retail prices for national and private-label riding mowers typically ranged from $800 to $5,000.The manufacturer’s price of Ride King of SMC, $ 650, was quite comparative, compared with industry average.
43COMPETITION POSITIONING Ten manufacturers comprised the major competitors in the riding lawn mower market in 1995: American Yard Products, Ariens, Honda, John Deere, Kubota, MTD Inc, Murray of Ohio, Snapper, Toro, and Garden Way/Troy-Bilt. Ariens, Honda, John Deere, Kubota, MTD Inc, Murray of Ohio, Snapper, Toro, and Garden Way/Troy-Bilt
44SWOT ANALYSIS POSITIVE NEGATIVE INTERNAL FACTORS STRENGTHS POSITIVENEGATIVEINTERNAL FACTORSSTRENGTHSDistinct productsHigh quality, simple design, easy to use and maintain , no significant claimInterchangeable partsCompetitive pricePersonal relationship with dealer, distributors and end-customersOne new product on the way (Trim Max)WEAKNESSESLimited range of productsPerception on rear and mid engine –not as strong and durable as front engineOne man makes all the decisionSmall business mentalityInsufficient attention for promotion and advertising campaignNo national distribution networkEXTERNAL FACTORSOPPORTUNITIESLimited market coverage (south central, southeastern). Potential expansion to the westNew target market include consumer housing, in addition to farmsPrivate labels business may be growingPossibility for automation by technology development in long term (production streamline, cost reduction)THREATSMany big competitors like Honda, John Deere, American Yard Production etc with stronger financial resources and economic size of capacityCyclical industryAfter next year, industry may be downSWOT ANALYSIS
45ALTERNATIVES AVAILABLE Enter distribution Arrangement with Retail Merchandise Chain:It could be to SMC’s advantage to enter the arrangement because it would provide them the chance to reach consumers they currently do not.
46ALTERNATIVES AVAILABLE Continue Current Operations:By continuing current operations as they are, SMC could avoid the added costs and put the funds toward other expansion possibilities.However, if SMC rejects this proposal, then they will be missing out on what makes up approximately 70 percent of industry sales.
47SOLUTIONSMC should sign the proposal with the retail merchandise chain. This proposal holds too many opportunities for SMC to let it pass or fall into the hands of another competitor.The results of accepting the proposal look far better than the alternative.