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Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Chapter 6 1.

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1 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Chapter 6 1

2 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 Define accounting principles related to inventory Define inventory costing methods Account for perpetual inventory using the three most common costing methods Compare the effects of the three most common inventory costing methods

3 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 Apply the lower-of-cost-or-market rule to inventory Measure the effects of inventory errors Estimate ending inventory by the gross profit method Account for periodic inventory using the three most common costing methods (Appendix 6A)

4 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Define accounting principles related to inventory 4 1 1

5 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Accounting principles guide how we record transactions Consistency Same accounting methods from period to period Disclosure Report enough information for outsiders to make decisions Materiality Follow accounting rules for significant items Conservatism Exercise caution in financial reporting 5

6 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6 Consistency Materiality Disclosure Conservatism We crashed our uninsured car, but haven’t disposed of it yet. Our balance sheet inventory values are 50 years out of date. Should we include a footnote for that? Can we use one inventory method to look less profitable early in the year and switch mid year to look better in year end numbers? Management wants to delay writing-down the value of the old inventory so we look stronger. We debited cost of goods sold directly for a small freight in charge on a $20,000 diamond ring order. We didn’t want to bother applying it to every diamond ring in inventory.

7 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Define inventory costing methods 7 2 2

8 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

9 What is our inventory value? How much is the Cost of Goods Sold expense?

10 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. To the Balance Sheet! To the Income Statement!

11 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Determining the cost of ending inventory for the balance sheet & COGS for the income statement Four Methods: 11 Specific- unit-cost First-In, First-Out Last-In, First-Out Average- cost

12 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Useful when inventory items are specifically identifiable Think: unique items with unique costs: cars, bikes, planes, expensive art works, homes…… Not practical to track vast inventories of homogenous items by the specific item NOTE: This does not mean just a specific part number, this means a specific unit of that specific part number. Fifo, Lifo, and average costs are just assumptions

13 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.  FIFO: First In First Out  Assumes the First item you bought is the First one you sell  Earlier purchase goes to Cost of Goods Sold  Later purchase stays in ending inventory Other examples?

14 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.  LIFO: Last In First Out  Assumes the Last item you bought is the First one you sell  Later purchase goes to Cost of Goods Sold  Earlier purchase stays in ending inventory More examples?

15 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.  Average Cost: Items valued at a weighted average of unit cost  Assumes one average cost for all units  Same unit cost given to sold and unsold units Other examples?

16 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 16 Note: FIFO, LIFO, and Average cost are all assumptions. It is NOT required that a company’s inventory actually flow in the selected reporting assumption. Assume = pretend

17 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Account for perpetual inventory by the three most common costing methods

18 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.  FIFO: First In First Out  Assumes the First item you bought is the First one you sell  Earlier purchase goes to Cost of Goods Sold  Later purchase stays in ending inventory

19 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 19 Beginning Inventory PurchasesCost of Goods SoldInventory on Hand Date Qty. Unit Cost Total CostQty. Unit Cost Total CostQty. Unit Cost Total Cost Jul 12$40$ $45 $ Purchase 6 more at $45 each

20 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 20 On July 15 sold 4 units PurchasesCost of Goods SoldInventory on Hand Date Qty. Unit Cost Total CostQty. Unit Cost Total CostQty. Unit Cost Total Cost Jul 12$40$ $45 $ $40 $

21 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 21 On July 26 purchased 9 at $47 PurchasesCost of Goods SoldInventory on Hand Date Qty. Unit Cost Total CostQty. Unit Cost Total CostQty. Unit Cost Total Cost Jul 12$40$ $45 $ $40 $ $47 $

22 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 22

23 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Do Snickers Exercise Part 1: FIFO Only Complete Snickers Perpetual Ledger Account. Prepare the revenue and expense journal entries. Complete the FIFO financial statements on the last page.

24 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

25  LIFO: Last In First Out  Assumes the Last item you bought is the First one you sell  Later purchase goes to Cost of Goods Sold  Earlier purchase stays in ending inventory

26 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 26 Beginning Inventory PurchasesCost of Goods SoldInventory on Hand Date Qty. Unit Cost Total CostQty. Unit Cost Total CostQty. Unit Cost Total Cost Jul 12$40$ $45 $ Purchase 6 more at $45 each

27 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 27 On July 15 sold 4 units PurchasesCost of Goods SoldInventory on Hand Date Qty. Unit Cost Total CostQty. Unit Cost Total CostQty. Unit Cost Total Cost Jul 12$40$ $45 $ $45 $

28 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 28 On July 26 purchased 9 at $47 PurchasesCost of Goods SoldInventory on Hand Date Qty. Unit Cost Total CostQty. Unit Cost Total CostQty. Unit Cost Total Cost Jul 12$40$ $45 $ $45 $ $47 $

29 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 29

30 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Do Snickers Exercise Part 2 LIFO Only Complete Snickers Perpetual Ledger Account Prepare the revenue & expense journal entries. Complete the LIFO financial statements on the last page. Compare LIFO & FIFO financial statements.

31 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

32  Average Cost: Items valued at a weighted average of unit cost  Assumes one average cost for all units  Same unit cost given to sold and unsold units

33 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 33 Beginning Inventory PurchasesCost of Goods SoldInventory on Hand Date Qty. Unit Cost Total CostQty. Unit Cost Total CostQty. Unit Cost Total Cost Jul 12$40$ $45 $ Purchase 6 more at $45 each ? ? ? ? ? ? Three steps to average cost: 1) Add units. 2) Add total inventory dollars. 3) Divide total dollars by total units. Three steps to average cost: 1) Add units. 2) Add total inventory dollars. 3) Divide total dollars by total units.

34 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 34 On July 15 sold 4 units PurchasesCost of Goods SoldInventory on Hand Date Qty. Unit Cost Total CostQty. Unit Cost Total CostQty. Unit Cost Total Cost Jul 12$40$ $45 $ $43.75 $

35 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 35 On July 26 purchased 9 at $47 PurchasesCost of Goods SoldInventory on Hand Date Qty. Unit Cost Total CostQty. Unit Cost Total CostQty. Unit Cost Total Cost Jul 12$40$ $45 $ $43.75 $ $47 $ ? ? ? ? ? ? Three steps to average cost: 1) Add units. 2) Add total inventory dollars. 3) Divide total dollars by total units. Three steps to average cost: 1) Add units. 2) Add total inventory dollars. 3) Divide total dollars by total units.

36 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 36

37 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Do Snickers Exercise Part 3: Average Cost Complete Snickers Perpetual Ledger Account Make the journal entry Complete the Average Cost financial statements on the last page

38 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

39 Express Lane, Inc., a regional convenience store chain, maintains milk inventory by the gallon. The first month’s milk purchases and sales at its Freeport, FL, location follows: 39 Nov 21 $2.00 each 62 $2.10 each 132 $2.20 each 14The store sold 4 gallons of milk to a customer. Describe which costs would be sold and which costs would remain in inventory. Then, identify the amount that would be reported in inventory on November 15 using a. FIFO. b. LIFO. c. average cost.

40 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Describe which costs would be sold and which costs would remain in inventory. 40 FIFOLIFO Average Cost Units sold include the: Ending inventory includes the: Oldest costs Average costs of units Newest costs Average costs of units

41 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inventory Record: FIFO Express Lane, Inc. Purchases (Sold) DateQuantityUnit CostTotal Cost Nov21$ $2.10$4.20 Bal1212 $ $2.00 $ $2.20$4.40 Bal $ $2.00 $4.20 $ Sold (4) $ Bal.1$

42 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inventory Record : LIFO Express Lane, Inc. Purchases (Sold) DateQuantityUnit CostTotal Cost Nov21$ $2.10$4.20 Bal1212 $ $2.00 $ $2.20$4.40 Bal $ $2.00 $4.20 $ Sold (4) $4.20 $2.20 Bal.1$2.00 End1$

43 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inventory Record : Average-Cost Express Lane, Inc. Purchases (Sold) DateQuantityUnit CostTotal Cost Nov21$ $2.10$4.20 Bal 3 { } / 3 $2.0667$ $2.20$4.40 Bal. 5 { } / 3 $2.12$ Sold (4) (4) 2.12($8.48) Bal.1$2.12 End1$

44 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Compare the effects of the three most common costing methods

45 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. What is our inventory value? How much is the Cost of Goods Sold expense?

46 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 46

47 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

48 FIFOLIFOAverage Sales$320 Cost of goods sold$170$180$175 Gross profit $150$140$ Highest gross profit; highest net income Lowest gross profit; lowest net income If inventory prices are increasing

49 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 49 High income attracts investors Overall a very realistic portrayal especially on the balance sheet High income attracts investors Overall a very realistic portrayal especially on the balance sheet “Middle ground” Lower income = Less taxes, yields higher cash flow Grossly misleading balance sheet Not conservative Illegal under IFRS Lower income = Less taxes, yields higher cash flow Grossly misleading balance sheet Not conservative Illegal under IFRS Last-In, First-Out First-In, First-Out Average- Cost

50 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Remember: Financial Accounting’s job is to portray the actual performance and standing of the reporting firm. Don’t veer too far from that objective, and you’ll be okay.

51 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. US Steel uses LIFO to enjoy the tax savings. How did LIFO contribute to workers’ successful strike? Management was confident they could out last striking workers because they had months of inventory on hand. 6 weeks of non-replenished sales was releasing their old cost layers (aka lifo reserve) of “cheap” inventory onto the income statement. Not replenishing these inventories before reporting would lead to high profits, taxes, failed negotiations, and a PR nightmare.

52 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Apply the lower-of-cost-or market rule to inventory

53 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Example of conservatism Inventory is reported at lower of: Historical cost or Market value (current replacement cost) If market is lower than cost, write down inventory value 53

54 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 54

55 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. P6-30A: ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES FOR INVENTORY AND APPLYING THE LOWER-OF-COST-OR MARKET RULE 55 Dec 12Cost of goods sold20,000 Inventory20,000 M and T should report inventory on the balance sheet at $80,000. M and T should report Cost of goods sold on the Income Statement at $430,000. Conservatism. The goal of conservatism is to report realistic figures.

56 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. IFRS and US GAAP both require revaluation to lower of cost or market. IFRS also allows restatement to cost in later periods. Conceivably, an IFRS reporting company could take a bath during a down year, then report artificially inflated profits in following years. This is already a problem in US GAAP with several adjustment areas.

57 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Measure the effects of inventory errors

58 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Daddy doesn’t know any magic tricks. Daddy knows accounting tricks.

59 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

60 Grandma Kate Bakery achieved Sales revenue of $52,000 and Cost of goods sold of $22,000. Compute Grandma Kate’s correct Gross profit if the company made either of the following independent accounting errors. Show your work. a.Ending inventory is overstated by $6,000. b.Ending inventory is understated by $6, Inventory As reported, correct a. overstated by $6,000 b. understated by $6,000 Sales Revenue$ 52,000 Cost of goods sold(22,000)(16,000)(28,000) Gross Profit$ 30,000$ 36,000$ 24,000

61 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Estimate ending inventory by the gross profit method A little insight in to the periodic method

62 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Method to estimate ending inventory using the gross profit percent Show similar method of calculating COGS 62 Beginning inventory$14,000 Net purchases 66,000 Cost of goods available 80,000 Estimated cost of goods sold: Sales revenue$100,000 Less: Estimated gross profit of 40% (40,000) Estimated cost of goods sold(60,000) Estimated cost of ending inventory$20,000

63 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 63

64 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Beginning inventory……………………….$42,450 Purchases………………………………… ,000 Cost of goods available………………….. 305,450 Cost of goods sold: Sales revenue……………………………. $501,000 Less: Estimated gross profit of 55%…(275,550) Estimated cost of goods sold…………. (225,450) Estimated cost of ending inventory……..$ 80,000 To compute the estimated cost of ending inventory by the gross profit method: 64

65 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Account for periodic inventory using the three most common costing methods (Appendix 6A)

66 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Simpler No running record of inventory Inventory counted at end of a period. Better for small businesses with smaller inventory amounts Adds four new accounts: Purchases Purchase discounts Purchase returns and allowances Freight in 66

67 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Purchases—Holds the cost of inventory as it is purchased (Debit balance) Purchase discounts—Discounts for early payment of purchases (Credit balance) Purchase returns and allowances—Items purchased, but returned to the vendor or allowances granted (Credit balance) Freight in—holds the transportation cost paid on inventory purchases (Debit balance) 67

68 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Beginning inventory + Net purchases Cost of goods available – Ending inventory Cost of goods sold 68 Purchases - Purchase Discounts - Purchase returns and allowances + Freight In = Net Purchases

69 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Same pattern as perpetual 69

70 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 70

71 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 71

72 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The four new accounts would be closed out at period end. 72

73 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. E6A-1 COMPUTING PERIODIC INVENTORY AMOUNTS The periodic inventory records of Synergy Prosthetics indicate the following at July 31: At July 31, Synergy counts two units of inventory on hand. 1. Compute ending inventory and cost of goods sold, using each of the following methods: a. Average-cost (round average unit cost to nearest cent) b. First-In, First-Out c. Last-In, First-Out 73 Jul 1Beginning inventory6 $60 8Purchase5 $67 15Purchase10 $70 26Purchase5 $85

74 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Ending inventoryCost of goods sold 1.Average$1,820÷ 26 units =average unit cost of $70 × 2=$140$1,820 − $140=$1,680 $85=$170$1,820 − $170=$1,650 $60=$120$1,820 − $120=$1,700 E6A-1 COMPUTING PERIODIC INVENTORY AMOUNTS 74 Jul 1Beginning inventory 6 $60 =$ 360 8Purchase 5 $ Purchase10 $ Purchase 5 $85425 Goods available26 units $1,820

75 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The accounting principles are the foundations that guide how we record transactions. Inventory costing methods include specific- unit-cost, FIFO, LIFO, and average cost. Specific unit identifies the specific cost of each unit of inventory that is in ending inventory and each item that is in cost of goods sold. Under FIFO, the cost of goods sold is based on the oldest purchases. 75

76 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Under LIFO, the cost of goods sold is based on the newest purchases. Under the average-cost method, the business computes a new average cost per unit after each purchase. Keep in mind the cost paid to purchase goods is the same under all inventory costing methods. The difference is where we divide up the dollars between the asset, Inventory, and the expense, COGS, on the income statement. 76

77 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The inventory costing method dictates which purchases are deemed sold (COGS). The sales price to the customer (Sales revenue) is the same regardless of which costing method is used to record COGS. Only the amounts in the COGS journal entries differ among the three costing methods. If the cost of inventory is declining, an adjustment must be made to lower the Inventory account to the lower value (market). If market is greater than cost, no adjustment is made to the Inventory account. 77

78 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Because the total spent to acquire goods available for sale is allocated to only the Inventory or the COGS account, if Inventory is incorrectly stated due to an error, COGS is also incorrectly stated. When discovered, errors must be disclosed and corrected in the affected financial statements. 78

79 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Account for periodic inventory using the three most common costing methods (Appendix 6A) Accounting is simpler in a periodic system because the company keeps no daily running record of inventory on hand. The only way to determine the ending inventory and cost of goods sold in a periodic system is to count the goods—usually at the end of the year. 79

80 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The periodic system uses four additional accounts: Purchases—this account holds the cost of inventory as it is purchased. Purchases carries a debit balance and is an expense account. Purchase discounts—this contra account carries a credit balance. Discounts for early payment of purchases are recorded here. Purchase returns and allowances—this contra account carries a credit balance. Items purchased but returned to the vendor are recorded in this account. Allowances granted by a vendor are also recorded in this account. 80

81 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Freight in—this account holds the transportation cost paid on inventory purchases. It carries a debit balance and is an expense account. The end-of-period entries are more extensive in the periodic system because we must close out the beginning inventory balance and set up the cost of the ending inventory. This appendix illustrates the closing process for the periodic system. 81

82 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Cost of goods sold in a periodic system is computed by the following formula (using assumed amounts for this illustration): Beginning inventory + Net purchases =Cost of goods available -Ending inventory =Cost of goods sold Net purchases is determined as follows: Purchases - Purchase discounts -Purchase returns and allowances +Freight in =Net purchases 82

83 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 83

84 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Copyright All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. 84


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