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© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Accounting for Merchandising Operations Chapter 5 5.

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Presentation on theme: "© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Accounting for Merchandising Operations Chapter 5 5."— Presentation transcript:

1 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Accounting for Merchandising Operations Chapter 5 5

2 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Learning objective  Describe merchandising activities and identify income components for a merchandising company.  Identify and explain the inventory asset of a merchandising company.  Prepare adjustments and close accounts for a merchandising company.  Define and prepare multiple-step and single- step income statements.

3 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Learning objective  Describe merchandising activities and identify income components for a merchandising company.

4 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Merchandising Activities Service organizations sell time to earn revenue. Examples: accounting firms, law firms, and plumbing services Service organizations sell time to earn revenue. Examples: accounting firms, law firms, and plumbing services Revenues Expenses Minus Net income Equals

5 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Merchandising Activities Merchandising companies sell goods to earn revenue. Example: supermarket Merchandising companies sell goods to earn revenue. Example: supermarket Revenues Expenses Minus Net income Equals

6 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin ManufacturerWholesalerRetailerCustomer Merchandising Companies Merchandising Activities

7 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Reporting Income for a Merchandiser products Merchandising companies sell products to earn revenue. Examples: sporting goods, clothing, and auto parts stores Cost of Goods Sold Gross Profit Expenses Net Income Net Sales MinusEqualsMinusEquals

8 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Operating Cycle for a Merchandiser Begins with the purchase of merchandise and ends with the collection of cash from the sale of merchandise. Purchases Merchandise inventory Credit sales Account receivable Cash collection Purchases Merchandise inventory Cash sales Cash Sale Credit Sale

9 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Learning objective  Identify and explain the inventory asset of a merchandising company.

10 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Inventory Systems + + Beginning inventory Net cost of purchases Merchandise available for sale Ending Inventory Cost of Goods Sold =

11 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Inventory Systems  Perpetual inventory system continuously updates accounting records for merchandising transactions — specifically, for those records of inventory available for sale and inventory sold.  Periodic inventory system updates the accounting records for merchandise transactions only at the end of a period.

12 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Learning objective  Analyze and record transactions for merchandising purchases and sales using a perpetual system.

13 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Accounting for Merchandise Purchases  Trade discounts vs. purchase discounts  Purchase returns and allowances  Transportation costs

14 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Accounting for Merchandise Purchases On June 20, Jason, Inc. purchased $14,000 of Merchandise Inventory paying cash.

15 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin  Seller  Invoice date  Purchaser  Order number  Credit terms  Freight terms  Goods  Invoice amount        

16 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Trade Discounts Used by manufacturers and wholesalers to offer better prices for greater quantities purchased. Example Matrix, Inc. offers a 30% trade discount on orders of 1,000 units or more of their popular product Racer. Each Racer has a list price of $5.25. Example Matrix, Inc. offers a 30% trade discount on orders of 1,000 units or more of their popular product Racer. Each Racer has a list price of $5.25.

17 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Purchase Discounts A deduction from the invoice price granted to induce early payment of the amount due. Terms Time Due Discount Period Full amount less discount Credit Period Full amount due Purchase or Sale

18 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2/10,n/30 Purchase Discounts Discount Percent Number of Days Discount Is Available Otherwise, Net (or All) Is Due Credit Period

19 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Purchase Discounts On May 7, Jason, Inc. purchased $27,000 of Merchandise Inventory on account, credit terms are 2/10, n/30.

20 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Purchase Discounts On May 15, Jason, Inc. paid the amount due on the purchase of May 7. $27,000 × 2% = $540 discount

21 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Purchase Discounts After we post these entries, the accounts involved look like this: Merchandise Inventory Accounts Payable 5/7 27,000 5/ /15 27,000 Bal. 26,460 Bal. 0

22 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Failure to Pay Within the Discount Period If we fail to take a 2/10, n/30 discount, is it really expensive? 365 days ÷ 20 days × 2% = 36.5% annual rate Days in a year Days in a year Number of additional days before payment Number of additional days before payment Percent paid to keep money Percent paid to keep money

23 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Purchase Returns and Allowances Purchase Return... Merchandise returned by the purchaser to the supplier. Purchase Allowance... A reduction in the cost of defective merchandise received by a purchaser from a supplier. Purchase Return... Merchandise returned by the purchaser to the supplier. Purchase Allowance... A reduction in the cost of defective merchandise received by a purchaser from a supplier.

24 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Purchase Returns and Allowances On May 9, Matrix, Inc. purchased $20,000 of Merchandise Inventory on account, credit terms are 2/10, n/30.

25 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Purchase Returns and Allowances On May 10, Matrix, Inc. returned $500 of defective merchandise to the supplier.

26 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Purchase Returns and Allowances On May 18, Matrix, Inc. paid the amount owed for the purchase of May 9.

27 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Transportation Costs FOB shipping point (buyer pays) FOB destination (seller pays) Merchandise Seller Buyer

28 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Transportation Costs On May 12, Jason, Inc. purchased $8,000 of Merchandise Inventory for cash and also paid $100 transportation costs.

29 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Quick Check  On July 6, 2005 Seller Co. sold $7,500 of merchandise to Buyer, Co.; terms of 2/10,n/30. The shipping terms were FOB shipping point. The shipping cost was $100. Which of the following will be part of Buyer’s July 6 journal entry? a. Credit Sales $7,500 b. Credit Purchase Discounts $150 c. Debit Merchandise Inventory $100 d. Debit Accounts Payable $7,450 On July 6, 2005 Seller Co. sold $7,500 of merchandise to Buyer, Co.; terms of 2/10,n/30. The shipping terms were FOB shipping point. The shipping cost was $100. Which of the following will be part of Buyer’s July 6 journal entry? a. Credit Sales $7,500 b. Credit Purchase Discounts $150 c. Debit Merchandise Inventory $100 d. Debit Accounts Payable $7,450 FOB shipping point indicates the buyer ultimately pays the freight. This is recorded with a debit to Merchandise Inventory.

30 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Itemized Cost of Merchandise Purchased

31 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Accounting for Merchandise Sales  Sales of merchandise  Sales discounts  Sales returns and allowances

32 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Accounting for Merchandise Sales Sales discounts and returns and allowances are Contra Revenue accounts.

33 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Sales of Merchandise On March 18, Diamond Store sold $25,000 of merchandise on account. The merchandise was carried in inventory at a cost of $18,000.

34 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Sales Discounts On June 8, Barton Co. sold merchandise costing $3,500 for $6,000 on account. Credit terms were 2/10, n/30. Let’s prepare the journal entries.

35 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Sales Discounts On June 17, Barton Co. received a check for $5,880 in full payment of the June 8 sale. Contra Revenue Account

36 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Sales Returns and Allowances On June 12, Barton Co. sold merchandise costing $4,000 for $7,500 on account The credit terms were 2/10, n/30.

37 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Sales Returns and Allowances On June 14, merchandise with a sales price of $800 and a cost of $470 was returned to Barton. The return is related to the June 12 sale.

38 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Sales Returns and Allowances On June 20, Barton received the amount owed to it from the sale of June 12.

39 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Learning objective  Prepare adjustments and close accounts for a merchandising company.

40 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Let’s complete the accounting cycle by preparing the closing entries closing entries for Barton.

41 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Step 1: Step 1: Close Credit Balances in Temporary Accounts to Income Summary.

42 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Step 2: Step 2: Close Debit Balances in Temporary Accounts to Income Summary.

43 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Step 3: Step 3: Close Income Summary to Owner’s Capital

44 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Step 4: Step 4: Close Withdrawals Account to Owner’s Capital.

45 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Learning objective  Define and prepare multiple-step and single- step income statements.

46 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Income Statement Formats  Multiple-Step  Single-Step  Multiple-Step  Single-Step

47 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Multiple-Step Income Statement

48 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Operating expenses  Selling expenses include the expenses of promoting sales by displaying and advertising merchandise, making sales, and delivering goods to customers.  General and administrative expenses support a company’s overall operations and include expenses related to accounting, HR management, and financial management.

49 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Single-Step Income Statement

50 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Single-Step Income Statement

51 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Multiple-Step vs. Single-Step Income statement  A multiple-step income statement format shows detailed computations of net sales and other costs and expenses, and report subtotals for various classes of items.  Gross profit  Income from operations  Net income A single-step income statement lists revenues and expenses with very few categories.

52 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Classified Balance Sheet

53 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Acid-Test and Gross Margin Ratios A common rule of thumb is the acid-test ratio should have a value of at least 1.0 to conclude a company is unlikely to face liquidity problems in the near future. = Quick Assets Quick Assets Current Liabilities Acid-TestRatio Acid-TestRatio = Cash + S-T Investments + Receivables Cash + S-T Investments + Receivables Current Liabilities

54 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Gross Margin Ratio Percentage of dollar sales available to cover expenses and provide a profit. Gross Margin Ratio Net Sales - Cost of Goods Sold Net Sales =

55 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Homework for chapter 5  Ex 5-1, 5-4, 5-5, 5-12  Problem 5-1A, 5-4A  Due on June 19, 2006 (Monday)

56 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006 McGraw-Hill/Irwin End of Chapter 5


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