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McGraw-Hill/Irwin Retailing Management, 6/e Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 12 Managing Merchandise Assortments.

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Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill/Irwin Retailing Management, 6/e Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 12 Managing Merchandise Assortments."— Presentation transcript:

1 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Retailing Management, 6/e Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 12 Managing Merchandise Assortments

2 12-2 Merchandise Management Buying Systems Planning Merchandise Assortments Buying Merchandise Pricing Retail Communication Mix

3 12-3 Merchandise Management Process by which a retailer offers the right quantity of the right merchandise in the right place at the right time and meets the company’s financial goals. Sense market trends Analyze sales data Make appropriate adjustments c) image100/PunchStock

4 12-4 Merchandise Management and Investment Portfolio Management Dollars to invest in inventory Invest in “hot” merchandise Save a little for opportunities (open to buy) Monitor portfolio Sell losers (markdowns)

5 12-5 Standard Merchandise Classification Scheme and Organizational Chart

6 12-6 Merchandise Management Issues

7 12-7 The Category A merchandise category is an assortment of items that customers see as substitutes for each other. Vendors might assign products to different categories based on differences in product attributes Retailers might assign two products to same category based on common consumers and buying behavior

8 12-8 Category Management Category management is the process of managing a retail business with the objective of maximizing the sales and profits of a category. Department stores manage at category level, but grocery stores manage merchandise around brands and vendors Objective is to maximize the sales and profits of the entire category, not just a particular brand. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Andrew Resek, photographer

9 12-9 Category Captain Selected vendor responsible for managing a category Vendors frequently have more information and analytical skills about the category in which they compete than retailers Helps retailer understand consumer behavior Creates assortments that satisfy the customer Improves profitability of category Problems Vendor category captain may have different goals than retailer

10 12-10 Antitrust Consideration The vendor category captain could collude with retailer to fix prices It could block brands from access to shelf space Category captains need to temper zeal for control over retailers Stockbyte/Punchstock Images

11 12-11 The Buying Organization Merchandise Group…………Men’s wear Department………….……….Young Men’s wear Classification………….……..Pants Category……………………..Jeans Sock Keeping Unit (SKU)…..Levi, 501, size 26 waist, 32 inseam Ryan McVay/Getty Images

12 12-12 Evaluating Merchandise Management Performance Merchandise managers have control over The merchandise they buy The price at which the merchandise is sold The cost of the merchandise Merchandise managers do not have control over Operating expenses Human resources Real estate Supply chain management Information systems SO HOW ARE MERCHANTS EVALUATED?

13 12-13 GMROI Gross Margin Return on Investment A measurement of how many gross margin dollars are earned on every dollar of inventory investment made by the buyer Digital Vision / Getty Images

14 12-14 GMROI Inventory Productivity Measures GMROI = Gross Margin Percent x sales to stock ratio = gross margin x net sales net sales avg inventory at cost = gross margin avg inventory at cost

15 12-15 ROI and GMROI Asset Productivity Measures Strategic Corporate Level Return on Assets = Net Profit Total Assets Merchandise Management Level GROI = Gross Margin Avg Inventory

16 12-16 Illustration of GMROI

17 12-17 GMROI for Selected Department in Discount Stores

18 12-18 Calculating Inventory Turnover –Inventory turnover = Net Sales Average inventory at retail –Inventory turnover = Cost of goods sold Average inventory at cost –Average inventory = Month1 + Month2 + Month 3 +… Number of months

19 12-19 Inventory Turnover Month Retail Value of Inventory EOM January$22,000 EOM February 33,000 EOM March 38,000 Total Inventory$93,000 Average inventory = $93,000 ÷ 3 = $31,000

20 12-20 Inventory Turnover and Stock-to-Sale Ratio Inventory turnover = Net Sales Average inventory at retail Inventory turnover = Cost of goods sold Average inventory at cost Sock-to-Sales Ratio = Net Sales Average cost of inventory

21 12-21 Advantages of Rapid Turnover Increased sales volume Less risk of obsolescence and markdowns Improved salesperson morale More resources to take advantage of new buying opportunities

22 12-22 Approaches for Improving Inventory Turnover Reduce number of categories Reduce number of SKUs within a category Reduce number of items in a SKU BUT if a customer can’t find their size or color or brand, patronage and sales decrease! another approach…

23 12-23 …another approach To improve inventory turnover Buy merchandise more often Buy in smaller quantities which should reduce average inventory without reducing sales BUT by buying smaller quantities Buyers can’t take advantage of quantity discounts so Gross margin decreases Operating expenses increase Buyers need to spend more time placing orders and monitoring deliveries

24 12-24 Merchandise Planning Process

25 12-25 Developing a Sales Forecast Understanding the nature of the product life cycle Collecting data on sales of product and comparable products Using statistical techniques to project sales Work with vendors to coordinate manufacturing and merchandise delivery with forecasted demand (CPFR) Royalty-Free/CORBIS

26 12-26 The Category Product Life Cycle

27 12-27 Variations in the Category Life Cycle

28 12-28 Factors Affecting Sales Projections Controllable Promotions Store Locations Merchandise Placement Cannabalization Uncontrollable Seasonality Weather Competitive Activity Product Availability Economic Conditions

29 12-29 Fad vs. Fashion How do buyers tell the difference? Is it compatible with changes in consumer lifestyles? Does the innovation provide real benefits? Is the innovation compatible with other changes in the marketplace? Who is adopting the trend? Ryan McVay/Getty Images

30 12-30 Forecasting Fashion Merchandise Categories Retailers develop fashion forecasts by relying on: Previous sales data Personal awareness Fashion and trend services Vendors Traditional market research The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Lars A. Niki, photographer

31 12-31 Personal Awareness How do fashion buyers know the trends? Internet chat rooms Look in closets Go to the movies Go to rock concerts Go to nightclubs Ryan McVay/Getty Images

32 12-32 Collaboration, Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment Systems (CPFR) Systems used by retailers and vendors to work together to insure that the right merchandise is at the right place at the right time. –Benefits both retailers and vendors –Increases fill rate, reduces stockouts, increases inventory turns

33 12-33 Assortment Planning Variety is the number of different merchandising categories within a store or department Assortment is the number of SKUs within a category. Product availability defines the percentage of demand for a particular SKU that is satisfied.

34 12-34 Assortment Plan for Girls’ Jeans

35 12-35 Is This Store Heavy on Variety? On Assortment? PhotoLink/Getty Images

36 12-36 Determining Variety and Assortment Profitability of Merchandise Mix Corporate Philosophy Toward Assortment Physical Characteristics of Store Complementary Merchandise Retail strategy can determine this PhotoLink/Getty Images


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