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Clare Fisher and Sharice Maxwell. History of the Juvenile Justice System and Major Turning Points The American Juvenile Justice System originated during.

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Presentation on theme: "Clare Fisher and Sharice Maxwell. History of the Juvenile Justice System and Major Turning Points The American Juvenile Justice System originated during."— Presentation transcript:

1 Clare Fisher and Sharice Maxwell

2 History of the Juvenile Justice System and Major Turning Points The American Juvenile Justice System originated during the 18 th century and was influenced by British Parliament The first United States Juvenile Court was opened in Chicago in 1899 In 1974, the Juvenile Justice Delinquency Prevention Act established programs in communities that discouraged juvenile crime and worked towards deinstitutionalizing youth already in the Juvenile Justice System The Supreme Court abolished the juvenile death penalty in 2005 The Supreme Court eliminated mandatory life without parole for juveniles convicted of murder in 2012

3 Individuals in the Courtroom: The Judge State’s Attorney Public Defender Court Reporter Deputy Sheriff Clerk Interpreter Probation Officer

4 A Judge Can Sentence a Juvenile Criminal To: Probation Youth will stay with their parents supervised by a probation officer Supervision (ex: electronic monitoring) Similar to probation; if a juvenile successfully completes supervision, they will not have a conviction on their record Community Service Treatment Residential treatment therapy/counseling Incarceration

5 Transfer to Adult Court In most States, cases referred to juvenile court that meet certain criteria may be transferred to criminal court upon the authorization of the juvenile court judge. Terminology for judicial waiver also varies: "certification," "remand," or "bind over" for criminal prosecution.

6 Experience of a Juvenile Offender in the United States’ Juvenile Justice System Discharge Sentence Hearing Arrest Incident

7 Average Age of First Time Offenders: 15 years old

8 Most Common Crimes Committed by Juvenile Offenders:

9 By: Jane, Gabbie, and Simon

10 General Characteristics Living in chronic poverty Bad neighborhoods Minimal parental involvement Poor school systems Drug/alcohol abuse Negative peer influence

11 EnvironmentMinimal Risk Remote Risk High RiskImminent Risk At-Risk Behavior School SystemsGood Schools Mid-Rank School Poor School Systems Uncontrolled Classrooms Poor Attendance Record Peer Environment Positive Peers Average Peers Bad Influence Major Peer Pressure Gang Affiliations Family LifeStable Two- Parent Home Mildly Unstable Home Broken Home Abusive Relationship Very Little Family Involvement Mental StatesFew psychological/ social issues Minor Issues Deeper Issues Requires Medical Attention Dangerous To Others CommunityHigh Safety Rates Average Safety Gang Influence Gang Violence Gang Participation

12 School Environment Productive School Environment Poor School Environment High expectations for student achievement Emphasis on discipline Provides social and academic support Smaller school and classroom sizes Respectful teacher/student relationships Little expectation for student achievement Unsafe/violent school environment Provides little social and academic support Uncontrolled classroom environment

13 Potential Outcomes for Students in Poor School Environments Teenage pregnancy Drug and/or alcohol abuse Disinterest in education/potential drop-out Unsuccessful relationships Antisocial and/or criminal behavior

14 Juvenile Crime Statistics 15% of juveniles in prison are females and 85% are male There are approximately 32,000 teenage female gang members In 2009, there were one million gang members in the US Every city in the US with at least 250,000 people have gang activity 65% of girls in jail have psychological issues such as clinical depression or generalized anxiety

15 Nancy Pureco and Kalen Cobb

16 Definition Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC) describes the disproportionately over-representation of minority youth in the juvenile system, in proportion to their general population as compared with white youth.

17 Reasons for Disproportions Racial Profiling Low income Environment Sexuality

18 Overview In Cook County from Jan. 2011- December 2011, there were approximately 5,165 juveniles in the Juvenile Temporary Detention Center. 85% were African-American 11% were Hispanic/Latino 4% were of other ethnicities Cost to Imprison Juvenile Cost of Attending University of Illinois $78,000/year$13,000/year

19 African American Juveniles More black men are imprisoned today than were slaves in 1850 Many are imprisoned for nonviolent offenses (drug possession) Gang affiliation is the cause of most of the imprisonment Racial profiling and Police Discretion

20 Hispanic Juveniles More likely to be involved in delinquency and/or gangs than White, African American, and Asian youth Have a lower average number of referrals to restorative programs than their White counterparts 29% of Hispanic youth were born outside the U.S.

21 Immigration The system criminalizes immigrants In 2010, the U.S. deported 19,296 minors These deportments cost $241,200,000 $12,500/minor detainee Cost of Housing Immigrants Amount Tax Payers Pay $5.5 Million/day*$166/detainee *Numbers are based on population of 33,400 detainees

22 Foster Care Many young victims of abuse end up in the State’s care When these victims outgrow the foster care system, most also end up in the Juvenile System (Dual Cases) Some juveniles also commit crimes while in foster care due to the lack of support

23 Mental Health Many mentally ill are wrongly imprisoned Not many places for them to go Prison is seen as a place to get these people off the streets

24 Aftermath Lack of responsible mentors Return to same environment Gang influence Lack of support Minimal rehabilitation centers Lack of funding

25 MARY Garaudy and Victoria Husser

26 Child grows up in a stressful situation (i.e. abuse, drugs, poverty) and is forced to survive on their own and make adult decisions The “white matter” in the brain allows nerve signals to travel throughout the brain with ease, and neural insulation is not completed till about 20 years of age A vast majority of teens who are sent to Juvenile Detention Centers come from environments of poverty, abuse, and addiction The teen learns that his/her surroundings are the only way to survive (i.e. stealing, violence, breaking the rules) They act out and resent authority figures for misunderstanding them

27 The last part of the brain to develop is that which dictates judgment and consequences; hence, why most think teens are so self- centered. They are neurologically less capable of predicting the outcome of negative behavior. In addition, the adolescent brain is also more sensitive than that of an adult. It’s a surviving mechanism.

28 “In the fall of 1999, when he was 17, Manny and two other gang members attacked a family in his neighborhood. One of the victims was six months pregnant. The prosecution says she was hit repeatedly in the stomach with a baseball bat. Four men were assaulted, two of them stabbed. Manny was arrested and brought to court on four counts of attempted murder. Manny comes from one of San Jose's roughest neighborhoods, and is a member of the Hispanic Norteño gang. His childhood was difficult; he grew up without his father and started running the streets and fighting in fourth grade. He has adopted the ethos of the streets, and believes that violence is sometimes necessary to achieve the respect of his peers. He says, ‘If someone hits you, you got to defend yourself... By just sitting there and turning the other cheek, you don't stick up for yourself, you just get rolled on, you don't have no self pride for yourself.’”

29 How Does Abuse as a Child Affect Future Brain Development?..

30 "non-accidental trauma or physical injury caused by punching, beating, kicking, biting, burning or otherwise harming a child." Definition of Abuse

31 Shocking Statistics 38% of girls are sexually abused before the age of 18 16% of boys are sexually abused before the age of 18

32 In a 2012 study abuse has risen significantly since 1980… Physical Abuse has increased 84% Sexual Abuse has increased 350% Emotional Abuse increased 333% Child Neglect Abuse has increased 320%

33 Causes and Effects of Abuse Causes Verbal Abuse Physical Abuse Emotional Abuse Sexual Abuse ALL CAN RESULT IN… Effects PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) Psychological consequences - Depression - Low self esteem - Trust issues - Slower Development of Cognitive Skills



36 Police suspect crime is committed Taken into custody Questioned Decide if youth will go through the juvenile justice system

37 Step Two: Discovery & Conference Juvenile appointed to case Motion for discovery Attorney/client conference

38 Step Three: Plea Negotiations Definition: In criminal procedure, there is a negotiation between the defendant and his attorney on one side and the prosecutor on the other, in which the defendant agrees to plea “guilty” to a crime. Attorney meets with solicitor The client The judge

39 Step Four: Final Preparation before Trial If no agreement can be reached, then the case will go to trial Subpoena Definition: A writ ordering a person to attend a court The verdict

40 After our week together these are some things we learned that will help us to resolve the issues for juveniles in the system

41 Maggie Marx & Julie Randolph

42 “Crying is not going to get me home The outside tears are nothing but water. I’m crying on the inside where no one can see it.” -14 year old girl in California Juvenile Hall From “No Place to Hide”

43 “Jail is just another kind of slavery. The law has to not be so quick to lock people up. It should get to know them first.” -15 year old girl in a California Juvenile Hall From “No Place to Hide”

44 Girls vs. boys Range of stay in Detention Center Individuals in the system with PTSD Dysfunctional families Sexual abuse Runaways Male delinquents demonstrated a higher level of need for a more structured environment, while girls need more psychiatric treatment

45 Common Factors between girls entering the System Sexual abuse Drug problems Lack of parental figure/family problems Dislike of foster families Psychological problems Problems in school (suspension, expulsion, etc) Forced into “survival strategies” i.e. prostitution

46 Girls in the system with mental illnesses Major depression – 20% Any anxiety disorder – 30.6% Any substance abuse/dependence – 49% Conduct disorders – 40.3% Any psychiatric disorder – 87.2%

47 Other interesting Statistics Fastest growing segment Most girls are nonviolent offenders Pregnancy Racial comparisons

48 Ideas to change the ways girls are treated by the juvenile justice system Address the issue that girls are incarcerated for less serious offenses than boys Require gender-responsive programming for girls (treatment) Alter practices that may further prevent trauma Address issues such as abuse, violence, family relationships, substance abuse, and disorders in girls Require that schools, social services, corrections, and aftercare service providers cooperate so girls don’t fall through the cracks

49 By: Courtney and Emily

50 Juvenile Detention Center is either a short-term or long-term secure residential facility for juvenile delinquents. There are approximately 60,500 youth in detention centers on a given day. There are 591 Juvenile Detention Centers in the United States. Pro: It can be used as a fear factor to stop youth from committing more crimes. Cons: Cost Jail hardens children because they are in an environment where peers encourage each other to continue on the path of crime. Juvenile Detention Facilities


52 50-70% of previously confined youth are rearrested within 1-2 years of release According to Justice Policy Institute 43% of youth do not return to school after release Effects of Detention

53 (Pendleton, IN) 7:00 a.m.: Breakfast 8:30 a.m.: School starts 9:30 a.m.: Bathroom break 10:45 a.m.: In-room break 11:30 a.m.: Lunch 1:00 p.m.: School resumes 3:00 p.m.: Free time 4:15 p.m.: Dinner 5:00 p.m.: Showers 8:30: Bedtime A Day in the Life…

54 On average the price for one day in Juvenile Detention Center is $135.4 per child Youth in juvenile detention tend to be more from the city rather than the suburbs. 80% of all juvenile delinquents are male. 96% commit serious offenses while 4% commit status offenses (e.g. underage drinking or running away) Needs for alternatives to detention: Over crowding High Cost Negative consequences for public safety and youth Statistics

55 By Courtney and Emily

56 Parole Prisoner behaves well in detention and is released Serves the rest of their sentence under the supervision of an officer Probation: Offender lives in the community under a set of rules Is under the supervision of a probation officer. For both probation and parole if the guidelines are violated they could face detention.

57 Small group sessions with peers Work to resolve conflict within the community Take place in schools, community centers, etc. Are under the supervision of an adult Peer Mediation Programs

58 Meant for destructive teens Involve physical punishment as well as educational classes Boot Camps

59 Youth Centers: Meant for more serious offenses Counselors, therapists, and teachers are available Main goal is positive behavioral change Evening Reporting Centers: Similar to youth centers Short-term treatment centers Provide educational programs in a structured environment

60 By Theresa Aubert

61 This is an agreement between countries all over the world that states the basic rights of a child.



64 The United States and Somalia have not yet ratified this agreement. Hundreds of organizations in America favor it, while hundreds of others oppose it. President Obama once stated this as an “embarrassment” and has promised to look more into it. We need to sign this agreement!

65 Alex Jordan, Kate O’Kelly Lynch, and Anya Miner

66 A theory of justice that emphasizes repairing harm caused or revealed by criminal behavior. It is best accomplished through cooperative processes that include all stake holders. “An old-fashioned concept that is right for the 21st Century.”- Reggie Robinson, Acting Director of OJP's Office for Victims of Crime

67 Why is Restorative Justice Needed? The incarceration rate has reached 1 of 100 adults in the United States The U.S. has 5% of the world’s population, with 22% of the world’s prisoners Over half of today’s federal inmates are incarcerated for nonviolent drug offenses

68 Goals of Restorative Justice To create opportunities for victims and offenders who want to meet and discuss the crime and aftermath To allow offenders the opportunity to take steps, in order to repair the harm that they have caused To provide opportunities for parties, with a part in a specific crime, to participate in the resolution

69 Methods of Restorative Justice Victim offender mediation Conferencing Circles Victim assistance Ex-offender assistance Restitution Community service

70 Peer Mediation Circles Goals: Promoting healing for all affected parties Providing an opportunity for the offender to make amends Addressing the underlying causes of criminal behavior Breaking the cycle of offending before it reaches the stage of repeat offending

71 Criteria: Admit responsibility for the offense All parties willing Discussions in the circle involve a talking piece A circle-keeper then guides everybody involved in understanding the situation and reaching a resolution Peer Mediation Circles

72 Benefits of the Restorative Justice Process A more proactive approach to making juveniles accountable for their actions Helps victims achieve closure about the incident Helps the offender’s parents receive support and help point their children back in the right direction Help offenders realize the error of their ways and take accountability Encourages community building and learning to discuss and solve basic disputes in a more collaborative way

73 Benefits of the Restorative Justice Process A study in Canada found that recidivism was less likely among offenders who had participated in circle compared to those who were processed in the juvenile justice system (Stuart 1996) A study of peacemaking circles in Minnesota found that more than two thirds of circle participants reported feeling at ease speaking in the circle (Umbreit 2002)


75 Religious Connection Focused on forgiveness and acceptance, which are also main principles of the Catholic faith Human dignity and respect for human life must be acknowledged, as they are in religious institutions

76 Fr. Dave Kelly Catholic priest of the Missionaries of the Precious Blood and Executive Director of the PBMR. Precious Blood Ministry Of Reconciliation Mission: To provide a safe place in the Back of the Yards neighborhood of Chicago To recognize and reach out to those affected by violence To seek reconciliation and peace through restorative justice To bring healing and renewal to the Church through an outreach to groups and individuals who experience alienation within and with the Church In 2010 Fr. Dave Kelly won the NHS Neighborhood Leadership Award In 2010 Fr. Dave Kelly won the NHS Neighborhood Leadership Award

77 Brought To You By Students of the Sacred Heart

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