GeorgeMartha The Washington’s Entertain in the 1 st Capital New York City
First Administration President Vice-President electoral vote took office Vice President John Adams President George Washington
Starting at Ground Zero no laws no law enforcement officers no courts no money no way of taxation no Traditions Help Wanted foreign affairs finances military matters legal matters
getting busy... Executive Cabinet created (GW advisors) –Secretary of War- Henry Knox –Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson –Secretary of Treasury - Alexander Hamilton –Attorney General –Edmond Randolph GW turns away relatives and friends to find the best qualified people Secure enough to select people with different opinions
Federal Court System Judiciary Act 1789 creates a federal court system with three levels. 1 st Chief Justice ____________ Chief Justice and 5 associate justices 3 Federal Circuit Courts State court decisions could be appealed to a federal court when constitutional issues were raised. Important
Hamilton vs Jefferson Born in the British West Indies Goal: give the union solid economic and financial base Co-author of the Federalist with Madison Nationalist—wanted to see U.S. as a powerful, highly centralized government. Good order more important than liberty Born in Virginia Goal:
Hamilton’s Financial Plan 1.Pay off $54 million national debt –Protect American credit Pay (N) states’ Rev. War debts ($25 mil.) –Most Southern states had already paid debts –Known as Assumption Bill 2. National bank (B.U.S.)to stabilize currency 3. Protective tariff for “infant” American industry
2. Assumption US took over debts the states had during the American Revolution (25M) WHY?: Would make people more concerned with future of US – loyalty to nat’l gov’t – not states Total = $80M
Hamilton’s Assumption Bill Congress Let’s make a Deal! –“North – you want Assumption & South, I need your votes Let’s relocate the nation’s capital to the banks of the Potomac River – 6 mi. land donated by Maryland and Virginia (Washington, DC)
Funding $54M debt from American Revolution and years under the Articles Owed to US citizens, US & foreign banks, foreign gov’ts US pledged to pay in full at face value & with interest
3. Source of Income Protective tariff –on imported goods – protects American industry Excise tax (tax on a product’s manufacture, sale, or distribution) –Whiskey Whiskey Rebellion (1794)
4. National Bank Owned by private investors & U.S. gov’t (20%) Issue paper money (bank notes) Safe place to deposit US funds & loan money 20 year charter
Whaddya think of the plan, TJ? Some people may call me a blockhead for this, but I have 2 thoughts on this: No. 1, the B.U.S. is UNCONSTITUTIONAL! Not to mention a tool for the rich people! No. 2, I’m opposed to the tariff because it benefits primarily the wealthy northeasterners.
Democratic-Republicans federalists view of Constitution national bank? protective tariff? business or agriculture? military strength France/Great Britain views on French Revolution Interpretation of the Constitution StrictLoose Interpretation of constitution Two Party System
Conclusion First Congress (1789-91) Enacted a tariff law Adopted and proposed to the States the Bill of Rights Organized the Departments of State, Treasury, and War Established the Federal Judiciary One of most productive session of the National Legislature
The French Revolution 1789 “war of all peoples against all kings” Inspired by the American Revolution –Declaration of Rights 97% living in terrible conditions King Louis XVI beheaded –Federalists: “revolution gone wrong” Upper-class French fled to England –Regroup and regain control France declares war on England What’s a good country like the U.S. to do?
Whiskey Rebellion 1794 1791 “excise tax” placed on whiskey Farmers in western PA. refused to pay tax and Governor of PA refused to collect it. Tarred and feathered tax collectors Federal Response: 12,000 troops (including Hamilton) sent to enforce the law Later GW pardoned those who had been arrested But……GW and AH had proved their point Example of federal authority over states
Whiskey Rebellion The tarring and feathering of federal officials was one way in which farmers in western Pennsylvania protested the tax on whiskey in 1794. When Washington called for volunteers to put down the resurrection, more people responded than during the Revolution. Thought Questions Why did farmers in western Pennsylvania protest the Whiskey Tax? Did everyone in the nation view the Whiskey Rebellion with alarm and fear? Why or why not?
Let’s ask the Big 3! TJ: support France AH: support England GW: stay neutral! –P–Proclamation of Neutrality 1793 Friendly with both Trade with both –F–French upset because of 1778 treaty –B–Both countries seized our ships –E–England impressed our sailors
Jay’s Treaty 1794 U. S. Granted “most favored” status to Britain –7/8 of trade with GB GB to withdraw from NW Territory U.S. pay debts owed from pre-Revolution GB pay damages for ships and cargoes seized Most people AGAINST treaty –No promise to stop seizing ships or impressing sailors –Nothing about freedom of the seas GW didn’t like it but U.S. couldn’t afford another war Jay burned in effigy along the Atlantic Coast
Spain gets nervous! The Pinckney Treaty 1795 Treaty of Friendship, Limits, and Navigation Between Spain and the U S Worried that U.S. and GB would conspire and take Florida and Louisiana Territory Treaty: favorable to U. S. –Set boundary between Florida and Georgia 31° N –U.S. may use New Orleans w/o charge and use whole Miss. River traveling thru Spanish territory –Spain to stop encouraging Indians to attack Americans
See ya, George! Twice is enough! –Virginia is calling him home Precedent-setter again –Only FDR different –22 nd amendment Farewell Address –No parties –No permanent alliances Come home, George!
Washington’s Estate Home for 45 years 8000 acres 5 farms 500 acres for him and his family on the Potomac River George retired here for less than 3 years He died here December 14, 1799 "No estate in America is more pleasantly situated than this..." George Washington, 1793
John Adams #2 2-term VP –“most insignificant office ever” Patriot leader for independence Massachusetts delegate to 1 st and 2 nd Continental Congresses Diplomat to France Law degree from Harvard
XYZ Affair France resented Jay Treaty Continued seizing American ships Adams sent 3 ministers to France Compensate U.S. for damages Release U.S. from 1778 Treaty French Foreign Minister demanded a bribe in order to negotiate $250,000 bribe $10 million loan to France Adams refused and told public American public wants war “Millions for defense; not a penny for tribute”
John Adam’s Administration XYZ Affair Undeclared naval war in the Caribbean between French and U. S. navy. French agents offer a peace treaty for a bribe. Americans refuse to pay.
Alien and Sedition Acts The Federalists strike back Alien Acts –Designed to strike back at the Dem-Reps Immigrants tended to support Dem-Reps –Increased residency requirement to become U.S. citizen from 5 to 14 years –President empowered to imprison or deport “dangerous” or “suspicious” aliens Sedition Act –Forbade conspiracy and criticism of government and leaders
The Democratic-Republican Response The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions 1798 anti-Federalist Alien and Sedition Acts are unconstitutional TJ and Madison ghost writers (Sedition Act) Doctrine of states’ rights –States can declare laws of Congress “null and void” Good material for the 1800 election Adopted by pro-slavery southerners to justify their actions
Election of 1800 “bloodless revolution” TJ #3 President
Judiciary Act of 1801 the midnight judges JA of 1801 created new federal judge positions Adams appointed 42 Federalists who opposed Dem-Rep principles just before he left office –Designed to antagonize and disrupt TJ’s administration Not all appointments were delivered Led to Marbury v. Madison –William Marbury sued for his job –President TJ told Sec. of State Madison to NOT deliver commission –CJ Marshall established the concept of judicial review Sec. 13 of JA (1789) unconstitutional I want my job! Get lost!