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George Washington ( ) Former leader of the Continental Army

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1 George Washington (1789-1797) Former leader of the Continental Army
Hero of the American Revolution Unanimously chosen in the first Presidential election

2 What Should Washington Do?

3 Problem #1: The Constitution had authorized Congress to set up a court system, but it did not spell out the details. Judiciary Act of 1789 – created the detailed structure of the federal court system Supreme Court 3 Circuit Courts 13 District Courts State court decisions can be appealed to the Federal courts Circuit courts – middle level of the court system. Dealt with civil suits between states’ residents, major crimes, and appeals District courts – general trial courts, both civil and criminal cases tried. Today there is at least one district court per state.

4 Congress created positions to help Washington run the nation:
Problem #2: In the Constitution, the Executive Branch only had two members: the President and the Vice President. You need more help running the new nation. Congress created positions to help Washington run the nation: Department of State – to deal with foreign affairs (Thomas Jefferson) Department of War – to handle military matters (Henry Knox) Department of the Treasury – to manage finances (Alexander Hamilton) Attorney General – the chief lawyer of the federal government (Edmund Randolph)

5 Problem #3: Two of your Cabinet members completely disagree over the nation’s future. Alexander Hamilton sees a future as an industrial nation with a strong federal government. Thomas Jefferson sees a future as an agricultural nation, with a weaker federal government.

6 Hamilton vs. Jefferson Alexander Hamilton powerful federal government
loose interpretation of the Constitution economy based on shipping and industry feared mob rule supported by merchants, manufacturers, landowners, lawyers, and clergy Thomas Jefferson wanted to share power with state governments strict interpretation of the Constitution economy based on farming feared an absolute ruler supported by the common people, farmers, and trades people

7 Problem #4: U.S. owes millions to foreign countries and private citizens. Some Southern states have paid their debts, are anti-taxes to pay for Northern debts Hamilton proposes Bank of the United States: funded by government, private investors issue paper money, handle taxes pay foreign debt, assume states’ debt Disagreement over Congressional authority to establish bank To win Southern support for his debt plan, Hamilton suggests: moving nation’s capital from NYC to South

8 Problem #5: Whiskey producers in western Pennsylvania refused to pay taxes on whiskey production. They beat up federal tax collectors and have threatened to secede from the Union. Washington ordered 15,000 troops to stop the revolt.

9 Problem #6: Revolutionaries in France have executed their king
Problem #6: Revolutionaries in France have executed their king. France is very unstable. To further complicate the situation, Great Britain is fighting a war against France to stop the revolutionaries. The French revolutionaries have asked the United States for help. Thomas Jefferson wants to help the revolutionaries, but Alexander Hamilton wants to help the British instead. Washington issued a declaration of neutrality—the U.S. would support neither side in the conflict. (War was not in the new nation’s best interest.)

10 Problem #7: Spain has not been following the terms of the Treaty of Paris. They want to control the lands from the Appalachian Mountains to the Mississippi River, and control travel on the Mississippi itself. Washington has Thomas Pinckney, U.S. minister to Britain, negotiate a treaty. Pinckney’s Treaty of 1795: Spain gives up claims to western U.S. Florida – U.S. boundary set at 31st parallel Mississippi River open to U.S. traffic

11 Problem #8: After the American Revolution, American settlers moved west across the Appalachian Mountains to farm. Native Americans did not recognize American rights to these lands. Native Americans and settlers often fought violently over control of these lands. Washington appointed a general to lead federal troops against the Native Americans. Native Americans were defeated in the Battle of Fallen Timbers. They gave up rights to Ohio for $10,000.

12 Problem #9: The British still have forts in territories west of the Appalachian Mountains. They refuse to leave and encourage Native American resistance to American settlement. Washington sends John Jay to Britain to negotiate a treaty. The British sign Jay’s Treaty and agree to evacuate their forts.

13 Problem #10: Britain and France are at war
Problem #10: Britain and France are at war. The United States is neutral, but when American ships try to trade in the Caribbean, their crews and cargoes are seized by the British navy. John Jay is already in Great Britain. But the British refuse to sign any treaty of shipping neutrality while they are at war with France!

14 Problem #11: The Constitution has no restrictions on how many times a President may be elected to office. After two terms, many people want you to run for President for a third term, but some people have concerns that the Presidency will turn into another monarchy. Washington steps down after two terms, setting a precedent for all presidents until Franklin D. Roosevelt.

15 Washington’s Farewell Address
1) Steer clear of permanent alliances and foreign entanglements 2) Avoid forming political parties Federalists Jeffersonian-Republicans

16 John Adams (1797-1801) Leader during the Revolutionary War
Vice President for 8 Years to George Washington Thomas Jefferson will serve as his V.P. John Adams had to deal with a young nation with political differences that were growing further apart. These domestic issues, paired with the dangers and complications of issues abroad made Adams presidency one full of challenges.

17 The French saw Jay’s Treaty as a violation of their alliance with the U.S., and started to attack American ships. Adams sent government officials to France to negotiate peace with the revolutionary government. Upon arrival in Paris, the officials were met with three French secret agents, later identified as agents “X”, “Y”, and “Z.” In order to even see the French foreign minister, the Americans would need to pay $250,000 and provide the French with a 10 million dollar loan. “The XYZ Affair” While it was a common practice in Europe to request money, the Americans saw it as a bribe – refuse to pay Congress created a naval department; Washington called to lead the army Undeclared naval war lasts for two years The U.S. was drifting toward war with France … The French were a little bit upset about Jay’s Treaty and they try to catch American ships in French harbors. Adams sent some officials to France in an effort of diplomacy. He did not want to go to war.

18 John Adam’s already limited popularity was waning
John Adam’s already limited popularity was waning. Democratic-Republicans were critical of Adams because the size of the army had been increased and taxes were raised to cover the costs of the army. Citizens, and many immigrants, acted out by printing scandalous accusations and depictions of the president. Federalists feared a French plot to overthrow the government and the role immigrants might play in this. The Alien and Sedition Acts were passed in The Alien Act granted the President the right to imprison or deport citizens of other countries residing in the United States. The Sedition Act prohibited people from writing or publishing anything “of a false, scandalous, and malicious” nature against the American government or its officials. You could be fined or jailed. The Alien and Sedition Acts got people very upset. They felt it infringed on their rights of free speech granted to them in the Constitution.

19 “If the Alien and Sedition Acts should stand, these conclusions would flow from them: that the General Government may place any act they think proper on the list of crimes, and punish it themselves whether enumerated or not enumerated by the Constitution as cognizable by them

20 “Virginia and Kentucky Resolves”
Thomas Jefferson and James Madison led the movement against the Alien and Sedition Acts. They claimed it was a direct violation of the 1st Amendment. With prompting from Jefferson and Madison, the state legislatures of Virginia and Kentucky passed resolutions that proposed the states decide whether federal laws agreed with the Constitution. The process was simple: if a state decided a law was unconstitutional, that law would be “null and void” in the states. “Virginia and Kentucky Resolves” The principle of “nullification” remains unresolved. Neither Virginia nor Kentucky tried to enforce the resolutions. But the message of defiance to the federal government was clear.

21 He runs! Against his BFF Jefferson. Uh-oh
Tensions between Federalist and Democratic Republicans continued to grow into Adams presidency. Members of Congress attacked each other in the House of Representatives and crowds would gather on the capital to taunt the president to the point where he had to enter the White House through the back door. As the election of 1800 loomed over the nation Adams had a decision to make…. TO RUN OR NOT TO RUN…. THAT IS THE QUESTION! The mudslinging that goes on in modern campaigns is nothing new. He runs! Against his BFF Jefferson. Uh-oh


23 The “Revolution” of 1800 UNIQUE FEATURES President vs. Vice President
Ended in a tie First time political parties involved First shift of power in new Republic

24 The Role of Parties Federalists – no clear plan, just more of the same
John Adams Republicans – have been waiting for “their time” to come; appeal to many Americans now Thomas Jefferson Aaron Burr

25 A Tie?! Jefferson and Burr both get 73 Electoral votes!
Solution: House of Representatives chooses between the two Reality of the situation: Federalist House had to choose between two Republicans Took 36 ballots to decide! Hamilton actually chooses to support Jefferson!


27 The 12th Amendment The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;

28 Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809) Writer of the Declaration
Served as Sec. of State under Washington Served as Vice President under Adams First President inaugurated in new capital – Washington D.C.

29 Problem #1: According to the Democratic-Republicans, the previous three Presidential terms with Federalists in office has resulted in a the national government that has far too much control. Constitutional rights and protections have been violated, and the military has grown beyond what is necessary! The power of the federal government will be reduced! Only tariffs and the sale of land will be used to raise $$ The President’s staff will be reduced The size of the military and navy will be reduced Any remaining naval ships will protect merchant vessels

30 Problem #2: Napoleon Bonaparte has declared himself Emperor of France
Problem #2: Napoleon Bonaparte has declared himself Emperor of France. He is trying to take over all of Europe and create a French Empire. He has forced Spain to give back control of much of the territory west of the Mississippi River that France had lost after the French & Indian War. However, Napoleon needs money – badly! This could be an opportunity for the U.S… Jefferson sends James Monroe to Paris to try and purchase New Orleans and West Florida from France.

31 “Louisiana Purchase” doubles the size of the U.S. – adds 828,000 acres
Problem #3: Napoleon realizes that his hope to create a worldwide empire is not feasible – he is having too many problems just in Europe. At the meeting with French officials, they offer to sell the U.S. all of the territory they control. However, Congress has only given Jefferson permission to purchase New Orleans and West Spain. 1803: U.S. and France sign an agreement selling the land for $15 million dollars “Louisiana Purchase” doubles the size of the U.S. – adds 828,000 acres Constitution did not directly give Jefferson the authority to buy new territory - Jefferson argues this was implicit in the President’s constitutional power to make treaties Article II, Section 2: He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur…

32 The Lewis and Clark Expedition!
Problem #4: Now that Jefferson has bought the Louisiana Territory, he has to help justify the expense to Congress and the people. Everyone wants to know what benefit they can get out of this new territory and that its purchase was more about helping the U.S. than Jefferson finally getting a chance to help France. The Lewis and Clark Expedition! Led by Meriwether Lewis (Jefferson’s secretary) and William Clark (experienced frontiersman) Assignment: map the country and survey its natural resources (plants, animals, landforms) Helped by a Shoshone Indian guide - Sacagawea Ultimate goal: reach the Pacific


34 Problem #5: Congress had passed the Judiciary Act of 1801, creating new positions in the judicial branch, while Adams was still in office. Adams had quickly filled the positions with Federalists, worried that he might loose the election. The signed documents with the judicial appointments were supposed to be delivered to each official before Jefferson took office, however not all were. New Secretary of State, James Madison, refuses to deliver the rest of the documents! Jefferson does not make Madison deliver the rest – he says he can now make his own choices for the remaining positions. William Marbury, one of the men who did not get his appointment, brought the case to the Supreme Court Claimed Judiciary Act of 1789 gave Court the power to force Madison to deliver the commission

35 Marbury v. Madison Court ruled that the Constitution gave the Supreme Court the power to hear only certain kinds of cases. The Constitution did not give the Court the power to force Madison to deliver Marbury’s commission. Ruled the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional! Marbury v. Madison established the Supreme Court’s power of judicial review, to declare that a law violates the Constitution.

36 “It is emphatically the province and duty of the judicial department to say what the law is”
Chief Justice John Marshall

37 Oh goody, look what I’m inheriting…
Problem #6: During the Napoleonic Wars, which have pitted France and Britain against each other, both sides ignore American declarations of neutrality. The British are more of a threat to the U.S. because not only do they seize cargo, but they impress American sailors and force them into the British Navy. In 1807, the British ship Leopard stops the American frigate Chesapeake and impresses four Americans… Jefferson wanted to stay neutral – proposes an embargo Congress passes the Embargo Act of 1807 – prohibits exports to foreign countries Disaster for U.S. economy Goods piled up in warehouses, sat in harbors, and businesses fail Oh goody, look what I’m inheriting… James Madison

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